The goal of this research project was to enhance the understanding of Asian battered women's experiences in seeking help from the criminal justice system (CJS) and other (non-CJS) programs and develop recommendations for system responses to IPV in Asian communities.
Given the enormous ethnic, socio-cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity among Asians, the project focused on three major Asian subgroups: Filipinas, Indians and Pakistanis, with selection criteria limiting the sample to those between the ages of 18 and 60 who had experienced physical violence, sexual violence and/or stalking at the hands of an intimate partner while residing in the San Francisco Bay Area (comprised of nine counties). A range of outreach methods (e.g., flyers at community venues and events, advertisements in various media outlets) was used to recruit respondents. The researchers conducted face-to-face interviews in English, Tagalog, and Hindi with a total of 143 women (87 Filipina women and 56 Indian and Pakistani women) who met the selection criteria.
To facilitate the respondents' memory retrieval of their life experiences over time, the Life History Calendar (LHC) method was utilized. The LHC method is designed to collect life-course data retrospectively and to improve respondents' memory recall by asking first about memorable and/or easily recalled events and recording their occurrences in a familiar calendar format and in a manner that is accessible to the respondents during the interview.
During the LHC interview, the respondent and interviewer sat in front of a blank LHC instrument and a Respondent Booklet, and the interviewer filled out the LHC instrument in plain view of the respondent. Respondents were asked about their experiences in various aspects of their lives and then more sensitive life events. Some respondents chose to provide their relationship history starting with the current partner and moving their way backward (backward recall) and some respondents blended forward recall and backward recall.
During the interview, respondents were asked about their experiences in various aspects of their lives (e.g., residential moves, birth of children) followed by questions about their relationship history, prior to answering questions about IPV. Interviewers then asked respondents if they had experienced IPV in each of their intimate relationships using behavior-specific items: physical violence (5 items); sexual violence (3 items), and stalking (2 items). For each type of IPV recorded, the interviewer probed about the age at which a respondent experienced that type of IPV for the first time, and if and when it occurred in subsequent years. Next, respondents were asked about their contact with CJS agencies and non-CJS programs such as legal assistance, shelter, domestic violence programs, as well as the types of responses they received from these agencies/programs. In the last part of the interview, respondents were asked open-ended questions concerning (a) the most helpful response they have received from any individual or organization; (b) reasons for not having contacted any CJS agencies (when applicable); and (c) their suggestions for improving the CJS responses to Asian battered women.
This study used a non-probability sample recruited by community outreach efforts. Multi-method recruitment strategies resulted in obtaining a sample of women from a wide range of backgrounds. Women in the study had to be between the ages of 18 and 60. They also had to be of Filipina, Indian, or Pakistani descent. Additionally, participants had to have experienced physical or sexual abuse and/or stalking at the hands of an intimate partner while residing in the San Francisco Bay area.
Filipina, Indian and Pakistani women, between the ages of 18 and 60 who had experienced physical violence, sexual violence and/or stalking at the hands of an intimate partner while residing in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Dataset 1, the Life History Calendar Interview Data (Rectangular Format), has 292 variables and 143 cases. Dataset 2, Life History Calendar Interview Data (Hierarchical Format), has 3,133 cases and 117 variables.