United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 1994: [United States]. ICPSR02756-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-03-04. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02756.v2
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02756.v2
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Date of Collection:
Patients treated during 1994 in the emergency department
of nonfederal, short-stay general hospitals that have a 24-hour
emergency department. Eligible respondents were those patients who met
the following criteria: (1) they were aged 6 years or older, (2) their
presenting problem(s) was/were induced by or related to drug use,
regardless of when the drug ingestion occurred, (3) the case involved
the nonmedical use of a legal drug or any use of an illegal drug, (4)
the patient's reason for taking the substance(s) included one of the
following: (a) dependence, (b) suicide attempt or gesture, or (c)
administrative records data,
Data Collection Notes:
Because data are abstracted from medical records
completed by hospital staff who treat the patients, the accuracy of
these reports depends on their careful recording of these
conditions. It is also important to recognize that DAWN does not
provide a complete picture of problems associated with drug use, but
rather focuses on the impact that these problems have on hospital
emergency departments in the United States. If a person is admitted to
another part of the hospital for treatment, or treated in a
physician's office or at a drug treatment center, the episode would
not be included in DAWN.
To protect the privacy of respondents,
all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been
encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. These modifications
should not affect analytic uses of the public use file.
1994, several DAWN hospital emergency departments in Los Angeles were
closed for a period of time due to the Northridge earthquake. In
addition, emergency department records in some facilities were
destroyed. This may explain the decrease in the total number of
drug-related episodes in Los Angeles between the first half of 1993
and the first half of 1994.
Changes in reporting procedures in
1994 in two national panel hospitals may have caused an increase in
the volume of drug-related cases reported there. Because these
hospitals reported a large number of methamphetamine cases, part of
the estimated 75 percent increase in methamphetamine-related episodes
from 1993 to 1994 may be an artifact. However, after removing these
two hospitals from the estimation, methamphetamine still showed a
The data were collected and cleaned by
Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc. Westat, Inc. created the weights and
analytic files, and the National Opinion Research Center (NORC)
created the public use file and codebook.
For more information, visit the DAWN Web site.
More than 500 EDs that were part of a scientifically-
selected sample of general hospitals in the country provided data for
DAWN. The DAWN sample is constructed to produce estimates of substance
abuse visits to emergency departments across the nation and to 21
oversampled metropolitan areas. The sample design of DAWN does not
permit state-level estimates. Hospitals in the frame were stratified
according to size, with hospitals reporting 80,000 or more annual
emergency department visits assigned to a single stratum and selected
with certainty. Additional strata were defined according to whether
the hospital had an organized outpatient department or a
chemical/alcohol inpatient unit. The 21 oversampled MSAs include:
Atlanta, GA, Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, Buffalo, NY, Chicago, IL,
Dallas, TX, Denver, CO, Detroit, MI, Los Angeles, CA, Miami, FL,
Minneapolis, MN, New Orleans, LA, New York, NY, Newark, NJ,
Philadelphia, PA, Phoenix, AZ, San Diego, CA, San Francisco, CA,
Seattle, WA, St. Louis, MO, and Washington, DC.
Mode of Data Collection:
hospital medical records
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Performed consistency checks.
Created online analysis version with question text.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Restrictions: Users are reminded by the Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration that these data are to be used solely
for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information, and
not for the investigation of specific individuals or organizations.