The purpose of the study was to examine the gendered effects of depression, drug use, and treatment on crime and the effects of interaction with the criminal justice system on subsequent depression and drug use.
The data for the study are from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373]. In addition to the 2004 NSDUH data, the study utilized new variables that were derived from the original dataset by the principal investigator, namely recoded variables, interaction variables, and computed indices. The 2004 NSDUH measured the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. NSDUH surveys were designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information was provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 years and older. Respondents also provided detailed information regarding criminal activity, depression, and other factors. Data contain information from a total of 55,602 respondents.
The achieved sample gathered from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373] is of 67,760 persons. The public use file contains 55,602 records due to a subsampling step used in the disclosure protection procedures. The sample is stratified on multiple levels, beginning with states. Eight states are considered large sample states and contribute approximately 3,600 respondents per state. The remaining states are sampled to yield 900 respondents per state. In advance of the survey period, specially trained listers visited each area segment and listed all addresses for housing units and eligible group quarters units in a prescribed order. Systematic sampling was used to select the allocated sample of addresses from each segment. Each respondent who completed a full interview was given a $30 cash payment. Persons were selected from the address roster using a handheld computer. To improve the precision of estimates, the sample allocation process targeted five age groups: 12-17 years, 18-25 years, 26-34 years, 35-49 years, and 50 years and older. The size measures used in selecting the area segments were coordinated with the dwelling unit and person selection process so that a nearly self-weighting sample could be achieved in each of the five age groups. The sample design included approximately equal numbers of persons in the 12-17 years, 18-25 years, and 26 years and older age groups. Minimum item response requirements were defined for cases to be retained for weighting and further analysis (i.e., "usable" cases). These requirements, as well as full sampling methodology, are detailed in the 2004 NSDUH [ICPSR 4373] codebook.
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373]
audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI)
computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)
The dataset contains a total of 3,011 variables. The first 2,690 variables are drawn from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373] and the remaining 321 variables were created by the principal investigator. Questions from the 2004 NSDUH included age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage of several drug classes. The survey covered substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and included questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. The survey included questions concerning treatment for both substance abuse and mental health related disorders. Respondents were also asked about illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, and needle-sharing. Questions introduced in previous administrations of the NSDUH study were retained in the 2004 survey, including questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17 years. These "youth experiences" items covered a variety of topics, such as neighborhood environment, illegal activities, drug use by friends, social support, extracurricular activities, exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, and perceived adult attitudes toward drug use and activities such as school work. Several measures also focused on prevention-related themes. Also retained were questions on mental health and access to care, perceived risk of using drugs, perceived availability of drugs, driving and personal behavior, and cigar smoking. Demographic variables and background information were also included, such as gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, veteran status, and current household composition. Variables created by the principal investigator are manipulations of the first 2,690 variables. Specifically, these variables include depression indices, drug dependence indicators, interactions with gender and other demographic variables, and dichotomous recoded variables relating to types of drug abuse and criminal behavior.
The study yielded a weighted screening response rate of 91 percent and a weighted interview response rate for the Computer Assisted Interview (CAI) of 77 percent.
The 2004 NSDUH data included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) oriented scales. The principal investigator also created scales for substance dependence as well as depression and substance dependence interaction.