Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS), 1991: Household and Non-Household Populations (ICPSR 2155)

Published: Jul 16, 2008

Principal Investigator(s):
United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse



Version V3

DC*MADS, 1991 (Household and Non-Household)

The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live births in the DC hospitals. DC*MADS was undertaken to assess the full extent of the drug problem in one metropolitan area. The study was comprised of 16 separate studies that focused on different sub-groups, many of which are typically not included or are under-represented in household surveys.

The DC*MADS: Household and Non-household Populations examines the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among members of household and non-household populations aged 12 and older in the District of Columbia Metropolitan Statistical Area (DC MSA). The study also examines the characteristics of three drug-abusing sub-groups: crack-cocaine, heroin, and needle users. The household sample was drawn from the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The non-household sample was drawn from the DC*MADS Institutionalized and Homeless and Transient Population Studies. Data include demographics, needle use, needle-sharing, and use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, crack, inhalants, marijuana, hallucinogens, heroin, sedatives, stimulants, psychotherapeutics (non-medical use), tranquilizers, and analgesics.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS), 1991: Household and Non-Household Populations. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-07-16. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02155.v3

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse


1991-01 -- 1991-12

Users should note that the National Institute on Drug Abuse does not make a public use file available for the DC*MADS Institutionalized Population Study.

The household and nonhousehold data were drawn from three sources: (1) the DC MSA oversample of NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY OF DRUG ABUSE, 1991 (ICPSR 6128) (NHSDA), (2) the DC*MADS 1991 Institutionalized Population Study, and (3) WASHINGTON, DC, METROPOLITAN AREA DRUG STUDY (DC*MADS), 1991: HOMELESS AND TRANSIENT POPULATION (ICPSR 2346). The NHSDA oversample consisted of interviews with 2,547 residents from a sample of 5,399 households and selected group quarters (e.g., college dormitories, homeless shelters). The Institutionalized Study consisted of 1,203 interviews with residents of 42 institutions stratified into four groups: 888 interviews from 20 correctional institutions, 207 interviews from 6 psychiatric institutions, 55 interviews from 7 noncorrectional institutions for juveniles, and 73 interviews from 9 group homes. The Homeless and Transient Population Study consisted of 908 interviews from four overlapping sampling frames: 477 interviews with residents in 93 shelters, 224 interviews with patrons of 31 soup kitchens and food banks, 143 interviews with "literally homeless" people from 18 major cluster encampments, and 64 interviews with literally homeless people from an area probability sample of 432 census blocks in the MSA. Overlap between the samples may have occurred. The overlap was minimized by eliminating institutions from the DC*MADS surveys that would increase overlap. For example, students living in dormitories were included in the NHSDA but not the DC*MADS Institutionalized Study.

For the Household Study: the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the coterminous United States (Alaska and Hawaii excluded) aged 12 and older. For the Institutionalized Study: persons in institutional (e.g., correctional facilities, mental or psychiatric hospitals, noncorrectional facilities for juveniles) and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., group homes, transitional homes for people leaving treatment for substance abuse). Nursing homes and hospitals or wards providing drug and alcohol treatment were excluded. For the Homeless and Transient Population Study: persons who were either literally homeless or at imminent risk of becoming homeless, including persons who spent the previous night in an emergency shelter, in a nondomicile (e.g., vacant building, city park, car, or on the street), or who were using soup kitchens or emergency food banks.


self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews

survey data

For the household, institutional, and homeless studies, the household/institutional response rates were 93.5 percent, 87.5 percent, and 82.6 percent, respectively. The individual interview response rates were 82.1 percent, 89.4 percent, and 86.1 percent. The overall response rates were 76.8 percent, 78.2 percent, and 71 percent.



2008-07-16 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. The variable CASEID was added to the dataset.

1998-11-19 The data file was reprocessed to eliminate duplicate records. Also, the SAS and SPSS data definition statements and codebook were edited due to a reversal in value labels for RACE. The correct labels are 1 = "White" and 2 = "Black".

1998-04-20 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).