The Urban Institute established the Reentry Mapping Network (RMN), a group of jurisdictions applying a data-driven, spatial approach to prisoner reentry. The goal of the RMN is fourfold:
To develop a better understanding of the dynamics and correlates of prisoner reentry at the local level;
To engage local stakeholders and practitioners in developing strategies to address reentry-related challenges;
To facilitate greater coordination and collaboration among state and local agencies and organizations around this work; and
To promote peer learning on how communities can use data to identify and address incarceration and reentry-related challenges.
The purpose of the study was to examine three NIJ-funded RMN sites: Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Washington, DC, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
As members of the Reentry Mapping Network, the three sites collected local data related to incarceration, reentry, and community well-being. The Nonprofit Center of Milwaukee's Neighborhood Data Center was the lead Reentry Mapping Network partner in Milwaukee. The Nonprofit Center of Milwaukee is an association of nonprofit organizations that provides technical support, training, and services to the nonprofit community. Data on a total of 168 census tracts in Milwaukee (Part 1) during the calendar year 2003 were obtained from the Wisconsin Department of Corrections.
NeighborhoodInfo DC was the lead reentry mapping network partner in Washington, DC. Established as a partnership between the Urban Institute and the Washington, DC Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), NeighborhoodInfo DC provides community-based organizations and residents in the District of Columbia with local data and analysis they can use to improve the quality of life in their neighborhoods. Data on a total of 7,286 ex-offenders in Washington DC (Part 2) during the calendar year 2004 were obtained from the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency (CSOSA) for the District of Columbia.
The Winston-Salem Reentry Mapping Network project was managed by the Center for Community Safety (CCS), a public service and research center of Winston-Salem State University. Working with community partners, CCS initiates analysis and research on community safety issues and then helps shape action and response. Data on a total of 2,896 ex-offenders in Forsyth County (Part 3) during the calendar year 2003 were obtained from the North Carolina Department of Corrections (DOC), the Forsyth County Sheriff's Department (Forsyth County Detention Center [FCDC]), and the North Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DJJDP).
Each of the three partners selected to receive grants had a different focus for their projects. Winston-Salem focused on community planning and the identification of community assets; Washington, DC, focused on forming a collaboration across faith-based institutions; and Milwaukee focused on coordination across social service agencies.
Of the 12 total Reentry Mapping Network (RMN) sites, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Washington, DC, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina, were the 3 sites selected for this study because they represented a good mix of reentry problems and planned approaches. The selection of these three sites was also influenced by the National Institue of Justice's (NIJ) interests based upon both topic area and previous NIJ investments.
The Milwaukee, Wisconsin Data (Part 1) were comprised of 168 census tracts in Milwaukee during the calendar year 2003. The Washington, DC Data (Part 2) were comprised of 7,286 ex-offenders in Washington, DC, during the calendar year 2004. The Winston-Salem, North Carolina Data (Part 3) were comprised of 2,896 ex-offenders in Forsyth County during the calendar year 2003.
Part 1: All census tracts in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during the calendar year 2003. Part 2: All prisoners returning to neighborhoods in Washington, DC, during the calendar year 2004. Part 3: All prisoners returning to neighborhoods in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, during the calendar year 2003.
individual (Part 2 and Part 3),
census tract (Part 1)
Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency (CSOSA) for the District of Columbia (Part 2)
Wisconsin Department of Corrections (Part 1)
Forsyth County Sheriff's Department (Forsyth County Detention Center [FCDC]) (Part 3)
North Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DJJDP) (Part 3)
North Carolina Department of Corrections (DOC) (Part 3)
The Milwaukee, Wisconsin Data (Part 1) contain a total of 95 variables including race (White, Black, American Indian, Asian, unknown, total of race data), ethnicity (Hispanic, Non-Hispanic, unknown, ethnicity data total), gender (male, female, total gender data), marital status (single, married, common law, separated, divorced, widowed, other, no data, marital status total data), education (no school or kindergarten, first or second grade, third grade, fourth grade, fifth grade, sixth grade, seventh grade, eighth grade, ninth grade, tenth grade, eleventh grade, twelfth grade, high school graduate, HED or GED certificate, technical or vocational school, some college, college graduate, some graduate school, graduate degree, ungraded, no education data, total education data), job status (professional, clerical, farming, skilled trade, semi-skilled labor, unskilled labor, other job, job status not reported, total job data), dependents (no dependents, 1 dependent, 2 dependents, 3 dependents, 4 dependents, 5 dependents, 6 dependents, 7 dependents, 8 dependents, 9 dependents, 10 dependents, 11 dependents, 12 dependents, 13 dependents, no data on dependents, total dependents data), general risk assessment (high, moderate, low, total general risk data), alcohol risk (high, moderate, low, total alcohol risk data), drug risk (high, moderate, low, total drug risk data), need for alcohol treatment (maximum, medium, minimum, total need for alcohol treatment data), and need for drug treatment (maximum, medium, minimum, total need for drug treatment data). Also included are four geographic variables: state county tract number, Census 2000 tract number, state county FIPS code, and county name.
The Washington, DC Data (Part 2) contain a total of 13 variables including supervision type, whether supervision began in calendar year 2004, date supervision period began, date supervision period ended, sex, marital status, ethnicity, age, education, unemployment status, state, and Census tract.
The Winston-Salem, North Carolina Data (Part 3) contain a total of 14 variables including race, sex, primary offense, admittance date, date pardoned, street, city, state, status, jurisdiction, and age at admission.