The purpose of the study was to identify the characteristics of adult arrestees at risk for mental disorders and co-existing substance abuse disorders, particualarly as distinguished from those who have no risk, risk only for mental disorder, or risk only for substance use disorder. Additionally, the study sought to develop a dual risk screening instrument that might be useful for jails to use at the time of booking in order to link clients to assessment services.
The data for this research were collected in conjunction with the National Institute of Justice's Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program. At the time of this study's release, the ADAM program was operational in approximately 35 cities nationwide, providing national and local profiles of drug use within arrestee populations and the monitoring of drug use patterns. An extension and refinement of the previous Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program (see DRUG USE FORECASTING IN 24 CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 1987-1997 [ICPSR 9477]), the ADAM program (see ARRESTEE DRUG ABUSE MONITORING (ADAM) PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES, 1998 [ICPSR 2826], 1999 [ICPSR 2994], 2000 [ICPSR 3270], 2001 [ICPSR 3688], 2002 [ICPSR 3815], and 2003 [ICPSR 4020]) is the United States government's primary source of information on drug use among arrestees, and is one of the primary research tools on drug use, crime, and other social indicators. Quarterly interviews with arrestees selected using probability based sampling (for males) and convenience sampling (for females) were conducted in jails and detention facilities at each ADAM site. Urine samples were also collected and tested for a core panel of drugs that included cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, and opiates. Because the drug screen could not detect drugs beyond 72 hours after use, only arrestees who had been incarcerated 48 hours or fewer were eligible for participation. The ADAM interview provided demographic and descriptive data, including race, age, marital status, source of income, screens for substance abuse and dependency, treatment history, arrest and incarceration experiences, and participation in local drug markets. At the conclusion of the interview, respondents were asked to provide a urine specimen. The current study was conducted as a supplemental study to the Cleveland/Cuyahoga County Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program in the second quarter of 2003 (April-June). A risk screening instrument was implemented to classify Cleveland/Cuyahoga County adult arrestees into four groups: arrestees at no risk for substance abuse or dependence or mental disorder; arrestees at risk for substance abuse or dependence with no risk for mental disorder; arrestees at risk for mental disorder with no risk for substance abuse or dependence; and arrestees at risk for both mental disorder and substance abuse or dependence. A total of 311 adult arrestees were interviewed and provided a urine sample submitted for testing.
In Cleveland, the ADAM sampling process included dividing booking facilities into two strata including the city of Cleveland and the other 65 booking sites located throughout Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The second strata were further divided into east side and west side booking facilities. Two sites were selected from each geographical area making for a total of six sites. Data for female arrestees was collected at the Cuyahoga County Jail. A detailed plan to access both stock and flow of arrestees was implemented to address the 24-hour representativeness of the sample. Please see ICPSR studies, ARRESTEE DRUG ABUSE MONITORING (ADAM) PROGRAM IN THE UNITED SATES, 1998 [ICPSR 2826], 1999 [ICPSR 2994], 2000 [ICPSR 3270], 2001 [ICPSR 3688], 2002 [ICPSR 3815], and 2003 [ICPSR 4020] for the sampling frame used to collect the ADAM data.
All persons arrested and booked on local and state charges (i.e., not federal and out-of-county charges) in Cleveland/Cuyahoga County Ohio in the second quarter of 2003.
The data were obtained from on-site questionnaires.
administrative records data
The ADAM interview provided demographic and descriptive data, including race, age, marital status, source of income, screens for substance abuse and dependency, treatment history, arrest and incarceration experiences, and participation in local drug markets. The dual risk screening instrument includes six mental disorder risk questions and six substance abuse risk questions. The mental disorder risk questions include questions on having feelings or emotions that make it difficult to complete normal day to day activities, feeling hopeless or depressed, having thoughts of hurting oneself or committing suicide, and hearing or seeing things that others cannot hear or see. The substance abuse risk questions include questions on problems caused by drinking or drug use, arrests due to alcohol or drug use, time spent on thinking about or trying to get alcohol or drugs, and feelings of guilt about drinking or drug use.
A total of 311 arrestees were interviewed and provided a urine sample submitted for testing.