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Historical Analogies, Generational Effects, and Attitudes Toward War in the United States, October 1990-February 1991 (ICPSR 9959)

Principal Investigator(s): Schuman, Howard; Rieger, Cheryl


This data collection explores the attitudes of different generations of Americans toward war. Questions pertained to respondents' views of the Cold War, World Wars I and II, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf War. Respondents were also asked for their opinions of Saddam Hussein and Adolf Hitler, and for their views regarding President George Bush's declaration that force was necessary to make Iraq withdraw completely from Kuwait. A portion of the interviews were conducted before the Persian Gulf War (up to and including January 15), some were conducted during the War (January 17 and later), and others the day the bombing started (January 16). Questions were also asked about the respondent's educational background, month and year of birth, race or ethnic origin, and sex.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Schuman, Howard, and Cheryl Rieger. Historical Analogies, Generational Effects, and Attitudes Toward War in the United States, October 1990-February 1991. ICPSR09959-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1993. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09959.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09959.v1

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  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Aging (1-RO1-AG08951)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    attitudes, Cold War, history, Hitler, Adolf, Hussein, Saddam, Persian Gulf War, public opinion, Vietnam War, war, World War I, World War II

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1990-10--1991-02

Date of Collection:   

  • 1990-10--1991-02

Universe:    Persons aged 18 and over living in the continental United States with telephones.

Data Type(s):    event/transaction data and survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The questions that comprise this survey were included as an additional set of questions in the monthly SURVEY OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR produced by the Economic Behavior Program, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan.


Sample:    Random digit dialing.

Data Source:

telephone surveys

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.


Original ICPSR Release:   1993-05-13

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