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Census of Population, 1880 [United States]: Public Use Sample (1 in 1000 Preliminary Subsample) (ICPSR 9474)

Principal Investigator(s): Ruggles, Steven; Menard, Russell R.


This data collection provides a preliminary subsample of the 1880 Public Use Sample drawn from census enumeration forms. The file contains two types of records: family and person. Each household record is followed by a record for each person in the family. This collection contains information about size of family, number of persons and families in dwelling, and geographic location of each household. Information on individuals includes demographic characteristics, civil condition, occupation, health, education, and nativity.

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Study Description


Ruggles, Steven, and Russell R. Menard. Census of Population, 1880 [United States]: Public Use Sample (1 in 1000 Preliminary Subsample). ICPSR09474-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1991. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09474.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09474.v1

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health (HD25839)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    census data, demographic characteristics, household composition, household characteristics, households

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1880

Date of Collection:   

  • 1880

Universe:    Manuscript census records from 1880 for the 38 United States, the District of Columbia, and the Dakota Territory.

Data Type(s):    census/enumeration data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) This dataset has two levels. The first level ("F" Record Type) contains 29 variables for each of 10,126 families. The second level ("P" Record Type) contains 45 variables for each of 48,786 individuals residing in those families. (2) The data contain blanks and alphabetic characters. (3) Users will note some differences in code frequencies between certain variables in this collection and the totals listed in the documentation. (4) This collection is superseded by CENSUS OF POPULATION, 1880 [UNITED STATES]: PUBLIC USE SAMPLE (ICPSR 6460).


Sample:    This collection is a nationally representative--although clustered--1 in 1000 preliminary subsample of the United States population in 1880. The subsample is based on every tenth microfilm reel of enumeration forms (there are a total of 1,454 reels) and, within each reel, on the census page itself. In terms of the Public Use Sample as a whole, a sample density of 1 person per 100 was chosen so that a single sample point was randomly generated for every two census pages. Sample points were chosen for inclusion in the collection only if the individual selected was the first person listed in the dwelling. Under this procedure each dwelling, family, and individual in the population had a 1 in 100 probability of inclusion in the Public Use Sample. The complete sample, which will be released by the principal investigators in December 1993, will contain approximately 500,000 individuals living in 100,000 families, or 1 percent of the United States population in 1880.

Data Source:

United States Bureau of the Census 1880 enumeration forms


Original ICPSR Release:   1991-03-05

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