War Ledger Data, 1870-1974 (ICPSR 9000)

Published: Aug 12, 2011

Principal Investigator(s):
A.F.K. Organski; Jacek Kugler


Version V2

This study examines the relationship between national power and war. In the first dataset, the conditions preceding the outbreak of war are examined. In particular, the links between national growth and the onset of war are addressed. The second dataset contains variables which measure national capabilities and estimate political capacities. The third dataset relates to the consequences of war in terms of national power and growth. The final two datasets concern nuclear deterrence: the fourth dataset contains crisis data to test whether deterrence works, and the last dataset contains information on U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense expenditures in order to establish if the two major nuclear powers are in a nuclear arms race.

Organski, A.F.K., and Kugler, Jacek. War Ledger Data, 1870-1974. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-08-12. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09000.v2

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1870 -- 1974

Part 1: Conflicts where major powers actively participated, or major powers made all-out effort to win conflict, or where there was a potential loss of territory or population. This includes the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 and World Wars I and II. Part 2: All nations involved in conflict where data was available for the relevant time frame. Part 3: Nations involved in World Wars I and II. Part 4: All crisis events from 1945-1974 and the nations involved in them. Part 5: U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense spending and resources, 1945-1978.

Part 1: International conflicts in which major powers actively participated. Part 2: All nations involved in international conflict. Part 3: Nations involved in World Wars I and II. Part 4: All crisis events from 1945-1974. Part 5: U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense spending and resources 1945-1978.

aggregate data



2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 6 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.

1986-04-28 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.

2011-08-12 Documentation has been updated.

2011-07-26 SAS, SPSS, and Stata setups have been added to this data collection.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.