Fines as a Criminal Sanction: Practices and Attitudes of Trial Court Judges in the United States, 1985 (ICPSR 8945)

Published: Jun 27, 2002

Principal Investigator(s):
George F. Cole; Barry Mahoney

Version V1

These data were collected to examine the practices and views of state trial court judges with respect to their use of fines as a criminal sanction. Respondents were asked about the composition of their caseloads, sentencing practices (including fines imposed for various circumstances), available information about the offender at time of sentencing, enforcement and collection procedures in their courts, and their attitudes toward the use of fines. In addition to questions concerning the judges' use of fines and other sanctions, the questionnaire presented the judges with hypothetical cases.

Cole, George F., and Mahoney, Barry. Fines as a Criminal Sanction:  Practices and Attitudes of Trial Court Judges in the United States, 1985  . Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002-06-27.

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (84-IJ-CX-0012)


The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Stratified random sample.

All state court judges of general jurisdiction and limited, but not special, jurisdiction in the United States.

mailed questionnaires

survey data



2002-06-27 SAS and SPSS data definition statements were created and the codebook was converted to PDF.

1988-10-25 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.