Beliefs About Social Stratification, 1980: [United States] (ICPSR 8702)

Published: Feb 1, 2001

Principal Investigator(s):
James R. Kluegel; Eliot R. Smith

Version V1

The purpose of this study was to describe and test hypotheses about Americans' beliefs regarding inequality. The survey investigated beliefs about causes of wealth and poverty, opportunity, and inequality, plus perceptions of fairness and the necessity of income inequality. Included in the survey were questions on self-perceived social class (poor, working, middle, upper-middle, upper), beliefs about differences between social classes, attitudes toward different social classes, and beliefs about discrimination against Blacks, other minorities, and women. The survey also collected information on political preferences, employment, marital status, educational attainment, religion, religiosity, age, sex, income, and satisfaction with life in general.

Kluegel, James R., and Smith, Eliot R. Beliefs About Social Stratification, 1980: [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001-02-01.

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National Science Foundation (NSF: SES 8016995,)

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH: MH32083)

To preserve respondent privacy, certain identifying variables are restricted from general dissemination. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete an Agreement for the Use of Confidential Data, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research. Apply for access to these data through the ICPSR Restricted Data Contract Portal, which can be accessed via the study home page.



Users should note that the documentation for this study is incomplete.

The variable SPIND (a numeric variable) contains embedded blanks.

Three samples were selected: a representative sample (1,507 cases), a Black oversample (402 cases), and an affluent oversample (303 cases).

Adults in the United States ages 18 and over.

telephone interviews

survey data




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