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Health Maintenance Organizations in the United States, 1984 (ICPSR 8468)

Principal Investigator(s): Louis Harris and Associates, Inc.


The Health Maintenance Organization study was designed to provide an up-to-date report card on how well HMOs are meeting the aspirations and demands of members, employers, and physicians who work in them. This study includes a detailed assessment of the strengths and successes, weaknesses and failures of HMOs as perceived by their key constituencies. This survey also obtained attitudes toward, and knowledge of HMOs among the general public, as well as changes in those attitudes. Other objectives include a comparison of different levels of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HMOs among the public, employers, and physicians both working in HMOs and non-HMO physicians. Variables in the Corporate Employer file include familiarity with HMOs, whether the company offers HMOs to employees, type of experience with HMOs, incentives and drawbacks of HMOs, number of employees, industry of the company, and number of years at present position of the executive being interviewed. The Physicians file contains variables on opinions and attitudes toward HMOs, whether the physician is an HMO practitioner, the number of HMO patients seen in a week, changes in the physician's practice caused by HMOs, primary speciality, number of years in practice, and age. The Members of HMOs and Public Cross-Section files contain variables on HMO membership, opinions on services at HMOs, comparisons between HMOs and traditional services, desire to join an HMO, health of respondent, occupation, education, age, marital and financial status, and race.

Access Notes

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DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Corporate Employer - Download All Files (12.245 MB)
DS2:  Physicians - Download All Files (12.341 MB)
DS3:  Members of HMOs - Download All Files (12.42 MB)
DS4:  Public Cross-Section - Download All Files (12.42 MB)

Study Description


Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1984. Princeton, NJ: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. [producer], 1985. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1986. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08468.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08468.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    health care services, health insurance, Health Maintenance Organizations, medical care, medical specializations, patient care, physician choice, physician practice

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1984

Date of Collection:   

  • 1984-08--1984-10

Universe:    Public Cross-Section - population of adults aged 18 and over within the continential United States. Health Maintenance Organization Members - adults aged 18 and over in households where a family member belonged to a Health Maintenance Organization. Corporate Employer - privated-sector companies in SMSA's with Health Maintenance Organizations. Physicians file - practicing physicians nationwide.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The data contain blank ( ) codes.


Sample:    Sampling for the Public Cross-Section file was generated by the random-digit-dialing method and was based on an unclustered sampling frame, stratified by region and by the Census Bureau's "size of place." Health Maintenance Organization Members file sampling procedure involved selecting those sampling areas of the public cross-section (largely limited to SMSA's) where one or more Health Maintenance Organizations were located. Corporate Employer file included a national sample of executives from companies with 100 or more employees. Physicians file sampling included a cross section of office or hospital-based nonfederal practicing physicians and physicians affiliated with Health Maintenance Organizations.

Data Source:

personal interviews


Original ICPSR Release:   1986-06-06

Version History:

  • 2006-01-18 File CB8468.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

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