National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Youths and Deterrence: Columbia, South Carolina, 1979-1981 (ICPSR 8255)

Principal Investigator(s): Paternoster, Raymond


This is an investigation of a cohort of high school-aged youth in Columbia, South Carolina. Surveys were conducted in three consecutive years from 1979 to 1981 in nine high schools. Students were interviewed for the first time at the beginning of their sophomore year in high school. An identical questionnaire was given to the same students when they were in the 11th and 12th grades. The longitudinal data contain respondents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, educational aspirations, occupational aims, and peer group activities. Also included is information on offenses committed, the number of times respondents were caught by the police, their attitudes toward deviancy, and perceived certainty of punishment.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Paternoster, Raymond. Youths and Deterrence: Columbia, South Carolina, 1979-1981 . ICPSR08255-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001.

Persistent URL:

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (81-IJ-CX-0023, and 83-IJ-CX-0045)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    career goals, crime, crime prevention, education, high school students, juvenile delinquency, secondary education, students, youths

Geographic Coverage:    Columbia (South Carolina), South Carolina, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1979--1981

Date of Collection:   

  • 1979--1981

Universe:    Youth from nine high schools in Columbia, South Carolina.

Data Type(s):    survey data


Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1986-06-06

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
  • 2001-06-05 The data were reformatted to logical record length format, and missing value codes were standardized. SAS and SPSS data definition statements were added to the collection along with a PDF codebook that includes information for all variables as well as the original data collection instrument.

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