Experiments in Question Wording, Form, and Context in Attitude Surveys, 1971-1980 (ICPSR 7940)

Published: Mar 17, 2006

Principal Investigator(s):
Howard Schuman, University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Stanley Presser, University of Michigan. Survey Research Center


Version V2

Data from over 200 experiments conducted in 34 different surveys are supplied in this collection. The experiments were designed to evaluate systematically the effects of question form, wording, and context. Experimental questions were constructed to explore the following topics: open vs. closed questions, "don't know" responses, response order, unbalanced questions vs. balancing attempts, agree-disagree items, attitude strength, attitude crystallization, tone of wording, question content, and question order.

Schuman, Howard, and Presser, Stanley. Experiments in Question Wording, Form, and Context in Attitude Surveys, 1971-1980. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-03-17. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07940.v2

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National Science Foundation (Soc76-15040, and Soc78-04021)

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (MH-24266)

1971 -- 1980

1974 -- 1981

Parts 1-22, 24, 26-32: Households selected using multistage area probability sampling, respondents randomly selected from each sampled household. Part 23: Systematic random sampling. Part 25: Block quota sampling in 1974, full probability sampling in 1978 and 1980.

Parts 1-22, 24-30: Noninstitutionalized population 18 years and over living in households in the 48 coterminous United States. Part 23: students at the University of Michigan listed in the student directory. Parts 31, 32: Adults aged 21 and over residing in dwelling units located within the Detroit Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Parts 1-22, 24, 26-30: Survey Research Center surveys, Part 23: University of Michigan surveys, Part 25: National Opinion Research Center surveys, Parts 31, 32: Detroit Area Study surveys

survey data



2006-03-17 ICPSR-created SAS, SPSS, and Stata setup files, SAS and Stata supplementary setup files, SAS transport file, SPSS portable file, and Stata system file have been added to the collection. ICPSR-produced codebooks for each of the parts were added. The original codebook was updated by removing OSIRIS-specific dataset listings.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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