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Representation and Development in Brazil, 1972-1973 (ICPSR 7712)

Principal Investigator(s): Converse, Philip E.; McDonough, Peter J.; de Souza, Amaury G.; Cohen, Youssef


Conducted in 1973-1974 in Brazil, this survey was designed to measure two sets of respondents' preferences regarding salient policy issues, their evaluations of political life and government performance, and their conceptions of relationships between themselves and their representatives in labor unions and in the political arena at large. Interview schedules for each group of respondents are nearly identical, but the sampling frames are very different. Therefore, the data from the separate samples are supplied as Part 1 (Mass Sample) and Part 2 (Union Sample) in two separate files. Variables include respondents' preferences as to which course of action the government should take in each of a series of policy domains, ranging from birth control and income redistribution to the limits on political opposition and governmental controls over organized labor. There are variables indicating respondents' opinions elicited on several current issues of controversy, including the political role of the military, censorship, and the system of indirect elections. The survey also contains data on the respondents' degree of organizational involvement of unionized workers, including variables pertaining to their participation in sindicatos (unions), their evaluation of the performance of the sindicato leadership, and indications of how the represented might hold the leadership to account for their actions. Additional variables deal with membership evaluation of sindicato functions and influence, respondents' party identification, past electoral choices, and evaluations of post-1964 government policies. Other variables include respondents' interest in politics and in the operation of government, as well as their perceptions of the effect of government on their lives. Variables provided by the interviewers include perceptions of the respondents' interest in the interview, the sincerity with which questions were answered, and the presence and behavior of other persons at the interview. A full range of background information is also contained in the data collection, including variables on respondents' age, sex, race, religion, educational level, occupation, income, marital status, birthplace, father's education and occupation, migration, and media use.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Mass Sample - Download All Files (8.132 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
DS2:  Union Sample - Download All Files (7.376 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   

Study Description


Converse, Philip E., Peter J. McDonough, Amaury G. de Souza, and Youssef Cohen. Representation and Development in Brazil, 1972-1973. ICPSR07712-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1980. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07712.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07712.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • Ford Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Public Health and Science (PHS: R01 HD 09126-03)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    agricultural policy, authoritarianism, birth control, censorship, demographic characteristics, domestic policy, economic policy, government performance, labor unions, military civilian relations, military regimes, national politics, political affiliation, political attitudes, political awareness, political behavior, political expectations, political influence, political issues, political opposition, political participation, political perceptions, population policy, public opinion, repression, socioeconomic status, trust in government, union leadership, union membership, voting behavior, working class

Geographic Coverage:    Brazil, Global, Latin America, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, South America

Time Period:   

  • 1972--1973

Date of Collection:   

  • 1972--1973 (fiscal year)

Universe:    Part 1: Persons 18 years of age and older residing in Southeast Brazil. Part 2: Members of 12 labor sindicatos (union locals) residing in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

Data Type(s):    observational data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The interview schedules are nearly identical for the two samples surveyed, but the samples were independently selected and must be analyzed separately. They cannot be merged and analyzed as a single population.

The dataset includes 53 questions that appeared as open-ended probes in the original survey and whose codes are in Portuguese.

An additional sample of 269 national elites was also interviewed during 1972-1973. However, concern with confidentiality prevented the release of the elite materials through ICPSR.

Multiple variants exist in the literature for the spelling of the name Amaury G. de Souza, one of the Principal Investigators of this study. ICPSR uses the preferred form found in library authority lists when citing his name in related publications.


Sample:    Part 1: A multistage probability sample, including: (Stage 1) the intentional selection of six states to represent the Southeastern region, each of which received representation in proportion to population, (Stage 2) selection of municipios, a county-like administrative unit of local government, selected with probabilities proportional to size after being stratified by degree of urbanization, with capital cities included with certainty, and (Stage 3) selection of census sectors which were divided into segments containing a manageable number of dwellings. Households were selected systematically from segment listings, and one respondent was chosen with known probability within each household included in the sample. Part 2: A systematic random sample of unionized workers.

Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-06-20

Version History:

  • 2006-01-18 File QU7712.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

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