National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Legal Representation Data, 1970 (ICPSR 7540)

Principal Investigator(s): Nagel, Stuart S.; Champagne, Anthony S.


This data collection contains legal representation information gathered in a 1970 survey of 474 attorneys across the United States, which garnered 221 usable responses. The research objectives included: (1) determining the relationship between the behavior of the attorneys in representing indigent or unpopular clients and the attitudes, specialties, backgrounds, and environments of the attorneys, (2) arriving at some policy recommendations for increasing the representation of indigent and unpopular clients, and (3) analyzing the joint causation phenomenon whereby neither favorable attitudes nor favorable opportunities alone lead to representation of the unpopular, but the combination of both together does so substantially. Survey information gathered includes respondents' attitudes toward: (1) the legal profession, (2) unpopular or indigent clients, (3) sociopolitical issues regarding the poor, and (4) the system of legal representation. Respondents were asked for their experiences when representing unpopular or indigent clients and to give reasons they might not choose to represent such clients. Background information includes characteristics of the respondent's community as well as respondent's race, gender, natality, father's occupation, political party affiliation, political offices held, religious preference, type of practice, and percent of clients from ethnic and racial minorities.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Dataset - Download All Files (0.508 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup   

Study Description


Nagel, Stuart S., and Anthony S. Champagne. Legal Representation Data, 1970. ICPSR07540-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-11-19.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    attorneys, client characteristics, clients, criminal justice system, defendants, legal representation, political attitudes, political philosophy, public defenders, social attitudes, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1970

Date of Collection:   

  • 1970

Universe:    Attorneys in the United States.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy 1of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    Random sampling was used (by choosing the last practicing lawyer listed on every tenth page of the alphabetic sections of the 1970 MARTINDALE-HUBBELL LEGAL DIRECTORY). The questionnaire was mailed to 474 attorneys across the country, with 221 returning usable responses, or 51 percent of the sample.

Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-05-03

Version History:

  • 2009-11-19 SAS, SPSS, and Stata setups have been added to this data collection.

Related Publications


Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics