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Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914 (ICPSR 7425)

Principal Investigator(s): Choucri, Nazli; North, Robert C.


This study includes data collected to investigate the dynamics of conflict and warfare and the role played by national growth and expansion in these processes. Annual aggregate data were compiled for the period 1870-1914 on Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary in eight categories: national size, colonial size, economic and productivity profile, commercial activity, government budget, alliances, violence, and conflicts of interest. Data in the first six categories were gathered from yearbooks and other historical sources. One of the alliance measures, adversary relationship, is a dummy variable indicating if a state was aligned or not. Variables in the last two categories are derived by subjective scaling procedures. The data are structured around individual years as units of analysis.

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Study Description


Choucri, Nazli, and Robert C. North. Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914. ICPSR07425-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07425.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07425.v1

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This study was funded by:

  • Ford Foundation
  • United States Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Research
  • United States Department of Defense. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • National Science Foundation
  • Stern Family Fund

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    aggression, alliances, economic indicators, government expenditures, government revenues, history, industrial production, international conflict, international relations, military expenditures, military strength, national growth, nineteenth century, trade, twentieth century, violence, war

Geographic Coverage:    Austria, Europe, France, Germany, Global, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Russia

Time Period:   

  • 1870--1914

Universe:    Six European states in 1870-1914: Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data


Data Source:

yearbooks, statistical publications, and other historical sources. A comprehensive listing of sources is included in Appendix A of NATIONS IN CONFLICT (see Related Publications).

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-05-03

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