Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914 (ICPSR 7425)

Published: Feb 16, 1992

Principal Investigator(s):
Nazli Choucri; Robert C. North

Version V1

This study includes data collected to investigate the dynamics of conflict and warfare and the role played by national growth and expansion in these processes. Annual aggregate data were compiled for the period 1870-1914 on Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary in eight categories: national size, colonial size, economic and productivity profile, commercial activity, government budget, alliances, violence, and conflicts of interest. Data in the first six categories were gathered from yearbooks and other historical sources. One of the alliance measures, adversary relationship, is a dummy variable indicating if a state was aligned or not. Variables in the last two categories are derived by subjective scaling procedures. The data are structured around individual years as units of analysis.

Choucri, Nazli, and North, Robert C. Nations in Conflict: Data on National Growth and International Violence for Six European Major Powers, 1870-1914. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1992-02-16.

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Ford Foundation

United States Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Research

United States Department of Defense. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

National Science Foundation

Stern Family Fund

1870 -- 1914

Six European states in 1870-1914: Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.

yearbooks, statistical publications, and other historical sources. A comprehensive listing of sources is included in Appendix A of NATIONS IN CONFLICT (see Related Publications).

aggregate data



1984-05-03 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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