This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.

Professionalism and Bureaucracy, 1966 (ICPSR 7314)

Principal Investigator(s): Hall, Richard


The data for this study were gathered in 1966 from professionals in 23 organizations of various types, such as schools, hospitals, law firms, manufacturing firms, advertising firms, brokerage firms, public and private agencies, accounting firms, and a public library. The study focused on the structural and attitudinal aspects of professionalization, and on the organizational settings in which many professional occupations exist. The questionnaire measured the hierarchy of authority, the division of labor, the extent of organizational control and organizationally-defined procedures, the impersonality of interactions, and the technical competence required by the respondents' specific jobs. Demographic data include age group, graduate degrees if any, and membership in professional organizations.

Access Notes

  • One or more data files in this study are set up in a non-standard format, such as card image format. Users may need help converting these files before they can be used for analysis.

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Dataset - Download All Files (4.127 MB)

Study Description


Hall, Richard. PROFESSIONALISM AND BUREAUCRACY, 1966. ICPSR version. Minneapolis, MN: Richard Hall, University of Minnesota, Dept. of Sociology [producer] 196?. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1999. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07314.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07314.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (GS 882)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    authority, bureaucracy, control, job skills, occupations, organizational behavior, organizational culture, organizations, professionalism, social contact, social roles, social structure, technology, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1966

Date of Collection:   

  • 1966

Universe:    Professional personnel in American organizations.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The documentation is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-05-03

Related Publications


Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics