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ANES 1972 Time Series Study (ICPSR 7010)

Alternate Title:   American National Election Study, 1972

Principal Investigator(s): Miller, Warren, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; Miller, Arthur, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center


This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1948. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. In addition to the core content, this dataset also includes topics like women's liberation, racial attitudes, economic attitudes, payment of federal income tax, feelings about the quality of life, and various cultural attitudes. As a result of findings from previous ANES studies, the general themes of trust in government, alienation, and efficacy were emphasized in an attempt to determine the causes of the observed decrease in public support of the political system. Besides being a stand-alone time series study, this dataset also represents the first wave in a three-wave data collection that continued with the ANES 1974 Time Series Study (ICPSR 7355) and the 1976 ANES Time Series Study (ICPSR 7381). The full panel file of data from these years, the ANES 1972-1976 Merged File (ICPSR 7607), also includes some cases not represented in the time series studies. To maximize the number of questions asked in 1972, two forms of the interview were developed, and each was administered to half of the respondents in both the pre- and the post-election waves. Each half-sample of respondents assigned to a specific questionnaire version also constitutes a cross-national sample, representative of the study population, so that the two sub-samples may be used together, or separately for analysis purposes. The two forms contain approximately 80 percent of the same items, while 20 percent are unique questions. In addition, in the post-election wave, 57 Form I respondents were re-designated Form III, and 37 Form II respondents were re-designated Form IV, because they were interviewed using a mail questionnaire that contained most, but not all, of the questions included in the face-to-face versions of the post-election questionnaire. Demographic variables include sex, age, race and marital status, number of children in household, level of education, occupation and employment status, religious preference.

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Miller, Warren, and Arthur Miller. ANES 1972 Time Series Study. ICPSR07010-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-20. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07010.v4

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07010.v4

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (MH19516-08)
  • National Science Foundation (GS-33956, GI-29904, GS-3322)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    candidates, congressional elections, cultural attitudes, domestic policy, economic conditions, foreign policy, government performance, income tax, information sources, national elections, Nixon Administration (1969-1974), political affiliation, political campaigns, political efficacy, political participation, presidential elections, public approval, public opinion, quality of life, racial attitudes, special interest groups, trust in government, voter expectations, voter history, voting behavior, womens movement, womens rights

Smallest Geographic Unit:    county

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1972

Date of Collection:   

  • 1972-09-01--1972-11-06
  • 1972-11-08--1973-02-13

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    United States citizens 18 years of age and older living in private households in the coterminous states.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.


Sample:    National multistage area probability sample.

Time Method:    Time Series: Discrete

Weight:    There are no weight variables in this dataset.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview, mail questionnaire, telephone interview

Response Rates:    Of the 3,606 eligible cases in the sample, 2,705 completed the pre-election survey, and 2,285 were re-interviewed in the post-election survey.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-06-19

Version History:

  • 2016-09-20 The SPSS, SAS, and Stata setup files as well as the SPSS and Stata system files and the SAS transport file were updated. A tab-delimited data file, and an R data file were added to the collection. The "Newspaper Endorsements" article, previously distributed as an individual file, has been incorporated in the updated codebook.
  • 2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.
  • 2015-08-06 A documentation PDF file was added to the collection and includes a higher-resolution version of an article regarding newspaper endorsements. Additionally, the codebook has been converted from text to PDF.
  • 1999-12-29 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats, in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added. SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been added to this collection, and the data collection instruments are provided as a PDF file.

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