ANES 1996 Time Series Study (ICPSR 6896)

Version Date: Sep 20, 2016 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Steven J. Rosenstone, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies; Donald R. Kinder, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies; Warren E. Miller, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies; National Election Studies. University of Michigan. Center for Political Studies


Version V6

American National Election Study, 1996: Pre- and Post-Election Survey

This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1948, designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1996 National Election Study contains both a pre- and a post-election component. The pre-election survey includes interviews in which approximately 77 percent of the cases are empaneled respondents who were first interviewed in the ANES 1992 TIME SERIES STUDY (ICPSR 6067) or the ANES 1994 TIME SERIES STUDY (ICPSR 6507), or both. The other 23 percent of the pre-election cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. Of the 1,714 citizens interviewed during the pre-election stage, 1,534 (89.5 percent) also participated in the post-election survey: 1,197 of these respondents were panel cases and 337 were cross-section. The content of the 1996 Election Study reflects its dual function, both as a traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as a panel study. Substantive themes presented in the 1996 questionnaires included interest in political campaigns, evaluations of the political parties, knowledge and evaluation of the presidential and House candidates, political participation (including turnout in the presidential primaries and in the November general election as well as other forms of electoral campaign activity), and vote choices for president, the United States House of Representatives, and the United States Senate. Additional items focus on perceptions of personal and national economic well-being, positions on social welfare issues like the role of government in the provision of jobs and a good standard of living, positions on social issues (including abortion, women's roles, and prayer in the schools), racial and ethnic stereotypes, opinions on affirmative action, attitudes toward immigrants, opinions about the nation's most important problems, political predispositions, social altruism, social networks, feeling thermometers for a wide range of political figures and political groups, affinity with various social groups. The 1996 study also includes new measures related to the dynamics of the congressional campaign, questions regarding the importance of issues, and the respondents' level of certainty regarding their expressed opinions, as well as new items about crime, the environment, gun control and income inequality. An eight-minute module of questions included in the post-election survey was developed by a consortium of electoral scholars from 52 polities to facilitate comparative analysis of political attitudes and voting behavior. Social capital items assess trust in people and government as well as membership and activity in a wide variety of social, political, religious, and civic organizations. A full complement of variables on group membership and participation is also available in the Group Membership File which can be merged with the Main Data File. Detailed demographic information is provided, as well as measures of religious affiliation and religiosity.

Rosenstone, Steven J., Kinder, Donald R., Miller, Warren E., and National Election Studies. University of Michigan. Center for Political Studies. ANES 1996 Time Series Study. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-20.

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National Science Foundation (SBR-9317631, SES-9209410, SES-9009379, SES-8808361, SES-8341310, SES-8207580, and SOC77-08885)
candidates   Clinton Administration (1993-2001)   congressional elections   crime   domestic policy   economic conditions   environmental attitudes   environmental policy   foreign policy   government performance   gun control   income   media coverage   memberships   morality   national elections   news media   philanthropy   political affiliation   political attitudes   political campaigns   political efficacy   political elites   political issues   political participation   political partisanship   presidential elections   primaries   public approval   public opinion   public policy   racial attitudes   social capital   social issues   social networks   social values   social welfare   stereotypes   trust in government   voter expectations   voter history   voting behavior

congressional district

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1992 -- 1996
1996-09-03 -- 1996-11-04, 1996-11-06 -- 1996-12-31

For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.

National multistage area probability sample.

Time Series: Discrete, Longitudinal: Panel: Interval

All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 5, 1996, residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

survey data

The 1996 sample included 1,795 panel respondents who had previously been interviewed in the ANES 1994, of which 759 had also been interviewed in the 1992 ANES. The 1996 sample also included new fresh cross-section cases totaling 661 eligible persons. The total eligible sample was 2,456 cases in all, with 1,714 persons completing pre-election interviews (1,316 panel, 398 fresh cross-section), and 1,534 of those also providing post-election interviews (1,197 panel, 337 fresh cross-section).


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Rosenstone, Steven J., Donald R. Kinder, Warren E. Miller, and National Election Studies. University of Michigan. Center for Political Studies. ANES 1996 Time Series Study. ICPSR06896-v6. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-20.

2016-09-20 The documentation for variables V961454 and V960005B was corrected in DS1: Main Data File. The SPSS, SAS, and Stata setup files as well as the SPSS and Stata system files and the SAS transport file were updated. A tab-delimited data file and an R data file were added to the collection. The codebooks were updated. Respondent booklets were added to the data collection instruments in the codebook for DS1: Main Data File.

2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.

2005-05-23 Descriptive variables concerning group membership have been added to this study as Part 2, Auxiliary File With Group Membership Variables, and the documentation for variable V961454 was corrected in the new file. The data are available in additional file formats, and the codebook is now available as a PDF file.

2000-04-18 Contextual variables have been added to the data file. Data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. The codebook and SAS and SPSS setup files have been revised to reflect these changes and to incorporate changes previously noted in errata. Column locations listed in the codebook appendix have been updated. The Match File and Missing Value File (formerly Parts 2 and 3, for use with 2nd release data) are no longer being distributed.

1998-07-15 New time-series weights have been added to this 3rd release of the collection as an alternative to the time-series weights available in Release 2. There is now a new weight for 1996 pre-election variables and a new weight for 1996 post-election variables. A stand-alone "match" file consisting of three variables -- V960001, the 1996 case ID, and V960005A and V960005B, the weight variables -- is provided as Part 2 of the collection for users who wish to merge this information into 1996 files previously downloaded. Also, changes to some missing data codes have been made for several variables (V961189-V961192), and are included as Part 3 of the collection. The DK values have been restored to these cases, as they previously were included as blank or NA cases. In addition, the following lesser changes were made: One case with an incorrect 1994 case ID has been corrected. Several variable label corrections have been made. The Candidate List (Appendix G in the 2nd release) has been renamed Appendix H. Appendix G is now the full technical report for the additional weight variables. The CPS two-digit Occupation Master Codes, which are required for the occupation coding of the respondent's father, have been included with the Appendix E set of 1996 Master Codes. (These Master Codes were omitted in the codebook included with Release 2.) The codebook and SAS and SPSS setup files have been revised to reflect these changes to the collection.

1997-04-30 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Weight variables are V960003, V960004, V960005, V960005A, and V960005B. V960003 is a full-sample weight that incorporates a household non-response adjustment factor, the within-household selection weight, and a post-stratification factor by age, sex, and region. The panel weight V960004 is constructed for longitudinal analysis. V960005, the "time series" weight, adjusts only for panel aging and attrition, and should be used when comparing the panel cases or the total sample to previous unweighted studies. V960005A and V960005B were constructed to correct for the under-representation of younger and less educated respondents and for the resulting contribution to voting overestimation. V960005A adjusts for household non-response, weights for within-household selection, and is post-stratified by age and education, with V960005B as a corresponding weight adjusted for attrition between pre-election and post-election studies. It is not intended that analysis be undertaken using the fresh cross component alone.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. Please see version history for more details.
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