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Eurobarometer 44.2BIS Mega-Survey: Policies and Practices in Building Europe and the European Union, January-March 1996 (ICPSR 6748)

Principal Investigator(s): Reif, Karlheinz; Marlier, Eric


This round of Eurobarometer surveys queried respondents on standard Eurobarometer measures, such as how satisfied they were with their present life, whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, whether they discussed political matters, what their country's goals should be for the next ten years, and how they viewed the need for societal change. Additional questions focused on the respondents' knowledge of and opinions on the European Union (EU), including how well-informed they felt about the EU, what sources of information about the EU they used, whether their country had benefited from being an EU member, and the extent of their personal interest in EU matters. Another major focus of the surveys was expectations and fears regarding the EU. Respondents were asked whether they feared economic crisis, loss of power for smaller member states, increased crime, more foreign workers, language acculturation, richer member countries paying for less rich countries, slower decisions due to bureaucracy, disappearance of small and midsized farms, businesses, and fisheries, loss of social benefits, transfer of jobs, massive imports, more taxes, decisions being imposed by the bigger member countries, and loss of national identity. Respondents were also asked to evaluate the likelihood of such situations occurring. Expectations of the EU were assessed through questions concerning whether areas such as defense, employment, culture, environment, consumerism, agriculture and fishing, immigration, border control, transportation, importation, social justice, equality, law, crime, and research should be considered key priorities for the EU. Opinions were sought on the necessity of various policies to further EU progress, which groups of people (such as students, retirees, the unemployed, large companies, farmers) were in favor of the EU, and which countries and groups benefited most from the EU. Respondents also provided information as to which areas of policy they believed should be decided by the EU and which decided by their national governments. With respect to further progress in building Europe, respondents not only described their reactions to this concept but also indicated whether they thought it was necessary to implement a single internal market, a common agricultural policy, a European social policy, a European environment policy, one European foreign policy, one army, a European currency, one tax system, an elected European government, and European citizenship in addition to national citizenship. Demographic and other background information was elicited on the number of people residing in the home, household income, and region of residence, as well as the respondent's age, sex, marital status, occupation, and left-right political self-placement.

Series: Eurobarometer Survey Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Reif, Karlheinz, and Eric Marlier. EUROBAROMETER 44.2BIS MEGA-SURVEY: POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN BUILDING EUROPE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION, JANUARY-MARCH 1996. Conducted by INRA (Europe), Brussels. 2nd ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer], 2001. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2001. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06748.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06748.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    attitudes, defense policy, economic integration, European unification, European Union, expectations, foreign policy, life satisfaction, national interests, national security, political influence, public opinion, public policy, quality of life, social change, trade

Geographic Coverage:    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Europe, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1996-01-28--1996-03-12

Date of Collection:   

  • 1996-01-28--1996-03-12

Universe:    Persons aged 15 and over residing in the 15 member nations of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as an ASCII text file as well as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, and the data collection instrument is also provided by ICPSR as a PDF file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    Multistage national probability samples.

Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1998-05-20

Version History:

  • 2001-05-29 German data for variables V610 and V611 (Region I and II) have been recoded to reflect current German regional coding, and appropriate updates have been made to the codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements. Also, variable V614 has been recoded, and the codebook description for this variable has had additional information added to category 4.
  • 2001-02-01 The data have been further processed by ICPSR and the SPSS data definition statements have been updated. Also, a standard machine-readable codebook (PDF) with frequencies and SAS data definition statements have been added, and the data collection instrument is now available as a PDF file.

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