Eurobarometer 44.2: Working Conditions in the European Union, November 1995-January 1996 (ICPSR 6722)

Version Date: Jan 10, 2002 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Karlheinz Reif, Unknown; Eric Marlier, Unknown


Version V1

This round of Eurobarometer surveys, which diverged from the standard Eurobarometer topics, queried respondents on their working conditions. Respondents provided general information about their jobs, including occupation, type of contract, years/months in job, wages, hours worked weekly, number of people working under their supervision, and length of commute, as well as size and business activity of the company where they worked. Specific questions about the work environment concerned the amount of exposure to vibrations, noise, high and low temperatures, fumes or other dangerous substances, and radiation. Respondents were also asked whether their jobs involved painful or tiring positions, carrying heavy loads, short repetitive tasks, repetitive hand or arm movements, high speed activity, tight deadlines, computer work, wearing protective equipment, working with non-employees, and working at home, at nights, and on weekends. In addition, respondents were asked if their health and safety were at risk at work, how well informed they were about job risks, and in what ways their work directly affected their health. They also provided information on how many times over the last year they were absent at work because of health problems caused by their jobs. Information was gathered on workers' control of their tasks, including the pace of their work, if their work was dependent on other colleagues or machinery, if they were able to determine the order or methods of their work, and whether their work involved complex or monotonous tasks. Other questions focused on work-related discussions with their boss, colleagues, and employee representatives, and occurrences of personal discrimination, intimidation, or physical violence. Respondents also provided information about training, job satisfaction, and the availability of leave time. Demographic data collected on respondents include gender, age, nationality, marital status, occupation, age at completion of education, number of people in household, number of children under 15 in household, and subjective size of community.

Reif, Karlheinz, and Marlier, Eric. Eurobarometer 44.2:  Working Conditions in the European Union, November 1995-January 1996    . Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002-01-10.

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1995-11-27 -- 1996-01-19
1995-11-27 -- 1996-01-19

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as an ASCII text file and as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, and the data collection instrument is provided by ICPSR as a PDF file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Multistage national probability samples.

Citizens and non-citizens of the EU aged 15 and over residing in the 15 EU member countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (Great Britain only for this study.)

personal interviews

survey data


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Reif, Karlheinz, and Eric Marlier. EUROBAROMETER 44.2: WORKING CONDITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, NOVEMBER 1995-JANUARY 1996. Conducted by INRA (Europe), Brussels. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer], 2001. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2001.

2002-01-10 The data have been further processed by ICPSR and the SPSS data definition statements have been updated. Also, a standard machine-readable codebook (PDF and text) and SAS data definition statements have been added, and the data collection instrument is now available as a PDF file.

1998-05-11 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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