General Social Survey of the European USSR, April-May 1991 (ICPSR 6500)

Published: Mar 30, 2006

Principal Investigator(s):
Michael Swafford, George Washington University. Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies; Polina Kozyreva, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Mikhail Kosolapov, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Gennady Denisovsky, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Alfiya Nizamova, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology


Version V1

This study of the European Soviet Union (European Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Moldavia, and Lithuania), conducted in the months preceding the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev and the breakup of the Soviet Union, was an attempt to gather residents' opinions on aspects of social structure, social stratification, and distributive justice. Respondents were asked to comment on migration, participation in political activities, membership in organizations, use of mass media, judgments about material well-being, confidence in institutions, interest in politics, and attitudes toward the role of women. They also provided information on topics such as smoking, drinking, and religious observances. Demographic variables included in the data cover work history, education, ethnicity, language, military service, household income, and expenditures. The study also measures respondents' attitudes toward a wide variety of products, both Soviet-made and imported, in terms of the actual price of such products and the ideal price according to the respondent.

Swafford, Michael, Kozyreva, Polina, Kosolapov, Mikhail, Denisovsky, Gennady, and Nizamova, Alfiya. General Social Survey of the European USSR, April-May 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-03-30.

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote

National Council for Soviet and East European Research (contract 805-17)

1991-04-11 -- 1991-05-31

1991-04-11 -- 1991-05-31

(1) The codebook contains an English version of the data collection instrument. The instrument is also available in Russian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Moldavian, upon request. (2) These data contain undocumented codes for several variables. Questions concerning these codes should be directed to Michael Swafford at Vanderbilt University. (3) See also GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND CENTRAL ASIA, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1992 (ICPSR 6499).

Adulterated probability sample.

Permanent residential population of individuals 18 years of age and older in the European USSR.

personal interviews

survey data



2006-03-30 File CB6500.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
ICPSR logo

This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.