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General Social Survey of the European USSR, April-May 1991 (ICPSR 6500)

Principal Investigator(s): Swafford, Michael, George Washington University. Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies; Kozyreva, Polina, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Kosolapov, Mikhail, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Denisovsky, Gennady, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology; Nizamova, Alfiya, USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Sociology


This study of the European Soviet Union (European Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Moldavia, and Lithuania), conducted in the months preceding the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev and the breakup of the Soviet Union, was an attempt to gather residents' opinions on aspects of social structure, social stratification, and distributive justice. Respondents were asked to comment on migration, participation in political activities, membership in organizations, use of mass media, judgments about material well-being, confidence in institutions, interest in politics, and attitudes toward the role of women. They also provided information on topics such as smoking, drinking, and religious observances. Demographic variables included in the data cover work history, education, ethnicity, language, military service, household income, and expenditures. The study also measures respondents' attitudes toward a wide variety of products, both Soviet-made and imported, in terms of the actual price of such products and the ideal price according to the respondent.

Series: General Social Survey Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Raw Data File - Download All Files (20.77 MB)
ASCII + SPSS Setup   
DS2:  SPSS Export File - Download All Files (21.074 MB)
DS3:  Frequencies File
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description


Swafford, Michael, Polina Kozyreva, Mikhail Kosolapov, Gennady Denisovsky, and Alfiya Nizamova. General Social Survey of the European USSR, April-May 1991. ICPSR06500-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06500.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06500.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Council for Soviet and East European Research (contract 805-17)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    civil rights, consumer attitudes, drinking behavior, families, gender roles, justice, life cycle, mass media, memberships, morale, morality, political attitudes, political participation, population migration, prices, prosperity, religious behavior, smoking, social attitudes, social control, social indicators, social issues, social mobility, social stratification, social structure, socioeconomic status, trust in government

Geographic Coverage:    Belarus, Europe, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Soviet Union, Ukraine, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1991-04-11--1991-05-31

Date of Collection:   

  • 1991-04-11--1991-05-31

Universe:    Permanent residential population of individuals 18 years of age and older in the European USSR.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The codebook contains an English version of the data collection instrument. The instrument is also available in Russian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Moldavian, upon request. (2) These data contain undocumented codes for several variables. Questions concerning these codes should be directed to Michael Swafford at Vanderbilt University. (3) See also GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND CENTRAL ASIA, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1992 (ICPSR 6499).


Sample:    Adulterated probability sample.

Data Source:

personal interviews


Original ICPSR Release:   1995-10-12

Version History:

  • 2006-03-30 File CB6500.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

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