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Euro-Barometer 40.0: Poverty and Social Exclusion, October-November 1993 (ICPSR 6360)

Principal Investigator(s): Reif, Karlheinz; Melich, Anna


This round of Euro-Barometer surveys queried respondents on standard Euro-Barometer measures such as public awareness of and attitudes toward the Common Market and the European Community (EC), and also focused on poverty and social exclusion, examining the extent and immediacy of these problems for respondents. Items covered whether the respondent's family or friends were experiencing poverty or social exclusion, how often the respondent saw instances of poverty and social exclusion, and whether the respondent believed that people had a chance of rising out of these circumstances. Respondents were also asked about the main reasons for poverty and social exclusion, the best ways to combat these conditions, what the role of volunteer groups, unions, employers, and the European Community (EC) should be, and whether the fight against poverty and social exclusion should be a priority objective for the EC. Also included were questions that asked whether respondents had given or would give any time to help disadvantaged people and what types of activities they had performed or would be prepared to perform. Respondents were asked to compare the current general economic and employment situations in their countries, the financial situation of their households, and their job situations with those of 12 months ago and 12 months ahead. Respondents were also asked to rate various aspects of their everyday life, including housing, income, work, social entitlements, and health. On EC matters, respondents were asked how well-informed they felt about the EC, what sources of information about the EC they used, whether their country had benefited from being an EC member, and the extent of their personal interest in EC matters. Demographic and other background information was gathered on number of people residing in the home, size of locality, home ownership, trade union membership, region of residence, and occupation of the head of household, as well as the respondent's age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, work sector, religion, religiosity, subjective social class, left-right political self-placement, and opinion leadership.

Series: Eurobarometer Survey Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Reif, Karlheinz, and Anna Melich. Euro-Barometer 40.0: Poverty and Social Exclusion, October-November 1993. ICPSR06360-v2. Koeln, Germany: Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2015-04-28. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06360.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06360.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    attitudes, economic integration, employment, European unification, European Union, information sources, life satisfaction, personal finances, political influence, poverty, public opinion, quality of life, social activism, social change, social isolation, social justice, social support, standard of living, volunteers

Smallest Geographic Unit:    Country

Geographic Coverage:    Belgium, Denmark, Europe, France, Germany, Global, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom

Time Period:   

  • 1993-10-13--1993-11-28

Date of Collection:   

  • 1993-10-13--1993-11-28

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    Persons aged 15 and over residing in the 12 member nations of the European Community: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom, as well as in Norway and Finland.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Data processing for this collection was performed at GESIS.


Sample:    Multistage national probability samples.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Weight:    The data are not weighted, however there are nine weights that users may want to apply during analysis: V6 (WEIGHT SPECIAL UNITED KINGDOM), V8 (WEIGHT RESULT FROM TARGET), V9 (WEIGHT ADJUSTED TO STANDARD SIZE), V11 (WEIGHT SPECIAL GERMANY), V12 (WEIGHT EURO 6), V13 (WEIGHT EURO 10), V14 (WEIGHT EURO 12), V15 (WEIGHT EUROPE 12 +), V16 (WEIGHT RESULTS FROM TARGET NORWAY ONLY), and V17 (WEIGHT RESULT FROM TARGET FINLAND ONLY). For additional information please see the "Original ICPSR Documentation, 1996 Release" in the ICPSR codebook.

Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1995-03-16

Version History:

  • 2015-04-28 The SPSS setup files were updated to conform to current standards. SAS and Stata setup files, as well as SPSS and Stata system files, a SAS transport (CPORT) file, a R data file, a tab-delimited data file, and a PDF codebook have been added to the collection.
  • 1997-02-13 The data have been revised, and 'D21a_Fin Occupation', formerly Variable 636, has been deleted, with its data merged into Variable 624, 'P7 Region I'. The data collection instrument and revised codebook have been made machine-readable, and machine-readable bivariate frequency tables were added to the codebook. In addition, SAS data definition statements were added to the collection and the SPSS data definition statements were revised.

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