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Attitudinal Distance in Southeast Asia, 1970-1971 (ICPSR 5012)

Principal Investigator(s): Howell, Llewellyn


This study contains data on 2,238 university students in Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia and their attitudes towards certain nationals and ethnic groups in the period 1970-1971. Respondents were asked questions in their native language about their attitudes towards certain groups in order to determine their social and international alienation from these groups. Demographic variables provide information on age, sex, nationality, ethnicity, religion, languages spoken, and occupation.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Dataset - Download All Files (1.205 MB)
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Study Description


Howell, Llewellyn. ATTITUDINAL DISTANCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, 1970-1971. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1999. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR05012.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR05012.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    college students, ethnicity, national identity, social attitudes, social distance

Geographic Coverage:    Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Southeast Asia, Thailand, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1970--1971

Date of Collection:   

  • 1970--1971

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The data map is provided as an ASCII text file, and the codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    A total of 2,238 randomly selected university students in Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia in the period 1970-1971.

Data Source:

personal interviews and self-enumerated questionnaires

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-03-18

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