Determinants of Vertical Integration in the Egyptian Garment Industry, 2002 (ICPSR 4270)

Published: Mar 17, 2006

Principal Investigator(s):
Amirah El-Haddad, University of Maryland-College Park

Version V1

The data pertaining to this study was the result of an exhaustive investigation into the nature of the firms composing the Egyptian garment industry. The data capture various characteristics of the firms relating to each one's level and order of integration into the production of fabrics and garments and into retail. Part 1 of the study contains the data obtained from the initial screening interviews administered to each firm by phone to determine the prevalence and nature of integration present in its operations. This information was used to determine which one of the four study questionnaires would be administered to each firm during the final interview. Each questionnaire produced four datasets containing (in this order):

  • general questions
  • contracts
  • lock in, switching costs, and temporal specificity
  • product information.

Questionnaire 1 (Parts 2-5) was administered to the firms for which the following four scenarios was true: (1) garment production and retail occurred at the same time at the establishment, and both garment production and fabric production took place at the same time at the establishment, (2) garment production and retail occurred simultaneously at the establishment, but fabrics were not produced in-house, (3) garment production occurred before retail while garment and fabric production were simultaneous at the establishment, and (4) garment and fabric production that occurred simultaneously at the establishment but retail operations not performed in-house (i.e. did not own or rent its own retail stores). Questionnaire 2 (Parts 6-9) was completed by the firms for which the following two scenarios were true: (1) garment production was subsequent to fabric production, and garment production was started prior to retail, or (2) garment production was started prior to retail, and the firm did not produce any of its own fabrics. Questionnaire 3 (Parts 10-13) was given to the firms for which the following three scenarios were true: (1) garment production began simultaneously with fabric production but not at the onset, and for which retail started subsequent to both garment and fabric production, (2) both fabric production and retail had started subsequent to garment production, and (3) garment production started before fabric production, and the firm did not perform in-house retail operations. Questionnaire 4 (Parts 14-17) was administered to firms for which the following two scenarios were true: (1) garment production was subsequent to fabric production, but in-house retail operations were not performed, or (2) there was no fabric production or in-house retail operations. Each of the four questionnaires contained an identical screening section (in addition to the screening information found in Part 1) in order to ensure that the appropriate questionnaire was administered during the interview. Specific questions regarding each firm's management, sister companies, products, operations, and other firm-level characteristics varied depending on the questionnaire. However, sections eight and nine, dealing with fabrics and fabric suppliers, were identical across all questionnaires.

El-Haddad, Amirah. Determinants of Vertical Integration in the Egyptian Garment Industry, 2002. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-03-17.

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National Science Foundation (Dissertation Improvement Grant #01 5 24251)


2004-03 -- 2004-06 (March-June 2004)

All four original questionnaires were composed in Arabic and have been preserved in the documentation accompanying this study. Only Questionnaire 3, however, has been provided in an English translation.

All variables contained in each of the 17 parts were renamed (shortened) during the processing of this study in order to accommodate ICPSR processing conventions. The original variable names were constructed in such a manner as to capture information with respect to the questionnaire, section, question, column, and question code (if present) from which the data originated. Additional details regarding the original variable nomenclature, and specific examples, can be found in the ICPSR Processing Notes located in the study codebook.

Each observation in the data can cover up to two years, varying by unit of observation: either the completed FY 2002 for all observations, or ranging from 1935-2002, depending on the observation.

All vertically integrated firms in fabrics were purposefully sampled. A sample of 257 non-vertically integrated firms was randomly sampled.

The 421 Egyptian garment-producing firms of the original sample frame that were identified via a phone interview as operative. The original frame was based on a list of 2,500 private textile firms compiled by the Federation of Egyptian Industries (FEI) in 2003.


survey data

face-to-face interview

Approximately 95 percent of vertically integrated firms and 86 percent of nonvertically integrated firms.



The weight variable for this data is V01_022 (pwspop) and is located in the Screening Information data file (Part 1). This is a population weight that, according to the author, is unity (weight = 1) for purposefully sampled firms, or for those firms vertically integrated into fabrics, and is the inverse of the probability that any of those observations is included due to the sampling design, for the other firms (weight = 1.67).


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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