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ANES 2004 Time Series Study (ICPSR 4245)

Alternate Title:   American National Election Study, 2004: Pre- and Post-Election Survey

Principal Investigator(s): University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies


This study is part of the American National Election Study (ANES), a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1948. The American National Election Studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 2004 ANES Time Series study was conducted in two waves, before and after the 2004 presidential election in the United States, and comprises both a pre-election interview and a post-election re-interview. A freshly drawn cross-section of the electorate was taken, yielding 1,212 valid cases. Like its predecessors, the 2004 ANES includes both questions necessary for tracking long-term trends and questions attempting to assess the political moment of this particular year. This study maintains and extends the ANES time-series 'core' by providing data on Americans' basic political beliefs, allegiances, and behaviors that are monitored at every election, irrespective of the nature of the specific campaign or the broader setting, because they are central to the general understanding of politics. Current and study-specific topics were also addressed. Questions covering issues prominent in 2004 referred to job outsourcing, private investment of Social Security funds, and President Bush's tax cut. Americans' views on foreign policy, the war on terrorism, and the Iraq War and its consequences were also assessed. Additional questions were asked on inflation, immigration, gender politics, and gay and lesbian politics. The study also extended the experiment on the measurement of voter turnout that began in 2002. Demographic variables include respondent's age, education level, political affiliation, race/ethnicity, marital status, and family composition.

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


American National Election Study, 2004: Pre- and Post-Election, Dataset 0001 - Download All Files (37.952 MB)
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Study Description


University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies. ANES 2004 Time Series Study. ICPSR04245-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-05-18. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04245.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04245.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-0118451)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    Ashcroft, John, Bush Administration (George W., 2001-2009), Bush, George W., candidates, Cheney, Dick, congressional elections, Democratic Party (USA), demographic statistics, Edwards, John, Kerry, John, Nader, Ralph, national elections, political affiliation, political attitudes, political campaigns, political participation, political partisanship, presidential elections, primaries, public opinion, Republican Party (USA), Social Security, tax cuts, voter history, voter interest, voter turnout, voting behavior

Smallest Geographic Unit:    congressional district

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 2004-09--2004-12

Date of Collection:   

  • 2004-09-07--2004-11-01
  • 2004-11-03--2004-12-20

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    All United States citizens of voting age on or before the 2004 Election Day. Eligible citizens must have resided in housing units in the 48 coterminous states. This definition excludes persons living in Alaska or Hawaii and requires eligible persons to have been both a United States citizen and aged 18 on or before November 2, 2004.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.

ANES 2004 TIME SERIES AND PANEL CONTEXTUAL FILE (ICPSR 4294) contains contextual information about these data.


Sample:    National multistage area probability sample.

Time Method:    Time Series , Time Series: Discrete

Weight:    Weight variables V040101 (pre) and V040102 (post) are available for use as full-sample weights that are the product of the household non-response adjustment factor, the within-household selection weight, and a post-stratification adjustment factor. These variables represent the same type of weighting first provided in weights created in 1997 for the 1994 and 1996 Time Series studies. This weighting post-stratifies to match the Current Population Study (CPS) estimate of the distribution of age group by education level. Weight variables using this construction are available for Time Series studies 1994-2004. (A corresponding weight is not available for Time Series studies preceding 1994 and has not been used since 2004.)

Mode of Data Collection:    computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

Response Rates:    Pre-election: 1212 interviews were completed from a sample of 1833 eligible respondents, for a response rate of 66.1 percent. Post-election: 1066 interviews were completed from a sample of 1212 eligible respondents, for a response rate of 88.0 percent.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   2006-02-17

Version History:

  • 2016-05-18 The SPSS, SAS, and Stata setup files, as well as the SPSS and Stata system files, and the SAS transport file were replaced. A tab-delimited data file and an R data file were added to the collection. The codebook was updated and the data collection instrument was added to the collection.
  • 2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.
  • 2006-04-24 Revisions were made to the metadata record.

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