Westernization Comparative Panel Dataset, 1975-1995 (ICPSR 4173)

Published: May 23, 2005 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Edward M. Crenshaw, Ohio State University; Pamela Paxton, Ohio State University; Kristopher K. Robison, Ohio State University; Rumi Morishima, Ohio State University


Version V1

The major purpose of this study was to compile panel/comparative multiple indicators of westernization across a large number of countries. The primary investigators attempted to empirically measure the concept of westernization. These data offer temporal and international coverage, a theory-driven classification of globalization indicators, and standardizations of these indicators. Using large samples of the world's countries for mid-decade years in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, these data amass three interrelated dimensions and their corresponding measures of westernization, i.e., economic, cultural, and political. Measures of political westernization include each nation's participation in western international treaties and western international non-governmental organizations as well as the total amount of United States military aid received and the total number of western embassies present. The economic measures examined include each nation's inflow of United States direct investment, United States economic aid, and Official Development Assistance from Western Nations as well as a nation's total trade with Western nations and total number of patents filed in the United States. The cultural measures compiled include each nation's total number of Western foreign press bureaus present, tourists from Western nations, tertiary-level students attending Western institutions, and phone calls to and from the United States. Descriptive characteristics collected include each country's United Nations Country Code, total population, and gross domestic product (GDP). Part 1 of this collection consists of a large sample of the world's nation-states. Part 2 is a subset of Part 1, which contains only those countries in the sample that had populations of at least one million people in 1995.

Crenshaw, Edward M., Paxton, Pamela, Robison, Kristopher K., and Morishima, Rumi. Westernization Comparative Panel Dataset, 1975-1995. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-05-23. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04173.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote
National Science Foundation (SES-0318367), Ohio State University. Mershon Center for International Security Studies


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1975 -- 1995
2002-09 -- 2004-07

ICPSR shortened the variable names to eight characters in order to be compatible with the naming conventions of different software packages and versions. The original variable names are contained within the current variable labels. The syntax to change the variable names assigned by ICPSR back to the variable names originally assigned by the principal investigators is provided in the setup files.

The values in this dataset were rounded to a maximum of ten decimal places where applicable.

The full sample is based on the availability of data reported from a variety of sources for every country. To be eligible for the full sample, a country must be an autonomous nation-state as recognized and reported by the United Nations. Part 2 is a subset of Part 1 and contains only those countries in the sample that had populations of at least one million people in 1995. Based on the above criteria, the number of countries included at each time point are 167 in the full dataset (Part 1) and 129 in the subset (Part 2) for c.1975, 167 in Part 1 and 129 in Part 2 for c.1985, and 187 in Part 1 and 149 in Part 2 for c.1995.

All of the countries in the world.


UNESCO Statistical Yearbook. United Nations, Paris, 1975, 1985, and 1995

Statistics of Communications Common Carriers. United States FCC, Washington, DC, 1975, 1985, and 1995

United Nation's Multilateral Treaties: Index and Current Status. University of Nottingham, The Treaty Centre School of Law, Nottingham, England

World Development Indicators. World Bank, 2002.

Yearbook of Tourism Statistics. World Tourism Organization, Madrid, 1975, 1985, and 1995

International Economic Accounts: Direct Investment. United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2003

Yearbook of International Organizations. Union of International Associations, Brussels, 1975, 1985, and 1995

Europa World Yearbook. Europa Publications Limited, London, 1975, 1985, and 1994

United States Overseas Loans and Grants (Greenbook). United States Agency for International Development, 2003

Destination of Official Development Assistance and Official Aid - Disbursements (Table 2a). OECD, 2003

Patent Counts by Country/State and Year. United States Patent and Trademark Office, 1975, 1985, and 1995

United Nations Common Database. United Nations, 2004

aggregate data



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Crenshaw, Edward M., Pamela Paxton, Kristopher K. Robison, and Rumi Morishima. Westernization Comparative Panel Dataset, 1975-1995. ICPSR04173-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-05-23. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04173.v1


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

ICPSR logo

This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.