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Globalization Comparative Panel Dataset, 1975-1995 (ICPSR 4172)

Principal Investigator(s): Paxton, Pamela, Ohio State University; Crenshaw, Edward M., Ohio State University; Morishima, Rumi, Ohio State University; Robison, Kristopher K., Ohio State University


The major purpose of this study was to compile panel/ comparative multiple indicators of globalization across a large number of countries. The primary investigators attempted to measure empirically the concept of globalization. These data offer temporal and international coverage, a theory-driven classification of globalization indicators, and standardizations of these indicators. Using large samples of the world's countries for mid-decade years in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, these data amass three interrelated dimensions and their corresponding measures of globalization, i.e., economic, cultural, and political. Measures of political globalization included each nation's participation in international treaties, intergovernmental organizations, and international non-governmental organizations, as well as each nation's total number of embassies, sent and received. The economic measures examined each nation's inflow of foreign direct investment, the balance of international income credit and debit payments, the balance of international services income credit and debit payments, and the balance of international imports and exports. The cultural measures compiled each nation's migration stock, the import of foreign newspapers and periodicals, the import of foreign books, and the amount of international mail received and dispatched. Descriptive characteristics collected included each country's United Nations Country Code, year of independence and dissolution, total population, and gross domestic product (GDP). Part 1 of this collection consists of a large sample of the world's nation-states. Part 2 is a subset of Part 1 which contains only those countries in the sample that had populations of at least one million people in 1995.

Access Notes

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DS1:  Full Sample of the World's Nation-States - Download All Files (0.407 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
DS2:  Countries With Populations of at Least One Million in 1995 - Download All Files (0.371 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   

Study Description


Paxton, Pamela, Edward M. Crenshaw, Rumi Morishima, and Kristopher K. Robison. Globalization Comparative Panel Dataset, 1975-1995. ICPSR04172-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-05-23. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04172.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04172.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-0318367)
  • Ohio State University. Mershon Center for International Security Studies

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    globalization, international economics, economic integration, world politics, international relations, international markets, cultural influences

Smallest Geographic Unit:    country

Geographic Coverage:    Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1975--1995

Date of Collection:   

  • 2002-09--2004-07

Unit of Observation:    country

Universe:    All of the countries in the world.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) ICPSR shortened the variable names to eight characters in order to be compatible with the naming conventions of different software packages and versions. The original variable names are contained within the current variable labels. The syntax to change the variable names assigned by ICPSR back to the variable names originally assigned by the principal investigators is provided in the setup files. (2) The values in this dataset were rounded to a maximum of ten decimal places where applicable.


Sample:    The full sample is based on the availability of data reported from a variety of sources for every country. To be eligible for the full sample, a country must be an autonomous nation-state as recognized and reported by the United Nations. Part 2 is a subset of Part 1 and contains only those countries in the sample that had populations of at least one million people in 1995. Based on the above criteria, the number of countries included at each time point are 155 in the full dataset (Part 1) and 130 in the subset (Part 2) for c.1975, 168 in Part 1 and 130 in Part 2 for c.1985, and 190 in Part 1 and 149 in Part 2 for c.1995.

Data Source:

The Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat

CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency, 2002

Multilateral Treaties: Index and Current Status. Michael Bowman and David Harris, eds. University of Nottingham, 1984 and 1994

Yearbook of International Organizations. Union of International Associations, 2000 and 2001

Yearbook of International Organizations. Union of International Associations, 1995, 1996, 2000, and 2001

The Europa World Yearbook. Europa Publication Limited, London, 1975, 1985, and 1994

UNCTAD Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics. UNCTAD, 1991 and 1996-1997

IMF International Financial Statistics Yearbook. United Nations, UNSTATS Common Database On-line

Trends in Total Migrant Stock by Sex. United States Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1998

International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods 1992 and 1998 (originally from COMTRADE database, United Nations Statistics Division). UNESCO

Postal Statistics. Universal Postal Union, 1985 and 1995 (a paper edition for 1973)

World Development Indicator. International Data Base of United States Bureau of the Census, World Bank, 2001

National Accounts Estimates Database of the Statistics Division, from the UNSTATS Common Database On-line. United Nations Statistics Division


Original ICPSR Release:   2005-05-23

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