Time Series for the Births and Deaths of Newspapers in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC, 1690-1994 (ICPSR 4058)

Published: Mar 30, 2006

Principal Investigator(s):
Judith R. Blau, University of North Carolina. Sociology Department


Version V1

The collection consists of time series for the births and deaths of newspapers for Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC, with time-varying covariates. This data collection stemmed from a study of cultural production and the role of newspapers in social and political mobilization. The data have been used to study ethnic and political group formation and the importance of newspapers as an indicator of civil society. The New York City data also allow the analysis of organizational histories, including mergers, and newspapers' chained histories. Data were collected from secondary data sources, including multiple sources for newspapers, United States historical censuses, immigration data, wars, recessions, unemployment rates, and election data. The length of the time series varies by city, with the longest series for New York City, Buffalo, Boston, and Philadelphia. For most files, the year is the unit of analysis, which lends itself to Poisson count analyses or event history. Network techniques are appropriate with the entrepreneurship data. Parts 1-7 of this collection contain pooled data across multiple cities. Parts 8 and 9 contain data for Baltimore. Parts 10-25 include data from Boston, while Parts 26-45 cover Buffalo. Parts 46-63 are data for New York City and Parts 64-89 contain data for Philadelphia. Lastly, Parts 90 and 91 include data for Washington, DC.

Blau, Judith R. Time Series for the Births and Deaths of Newspapers in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC, 1690-1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-03-30. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04058.v1

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National Science Foundation (SES-9108923, SES-8907765)


1690 -- 1994

1996 -- 1999

The cities were selected purposively, with emphasis on older and larger cities in the United States.

Newspapers in large cities in the United States.




United States Newspaper Program National Union List


State election data for New York (state)

Multiple sources for fixed and varying historical covariates, as noted in publications

United States Immigration and Nationalization Service reports

United States Bureau of the Census

Ayers and Rowells, N.W. Ayer and Sons American Newspaper Annual

census/enumeration data, and event/transaction data



2006-03-30 File CB04058-ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

2005-07-29 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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