Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016 (ICPSR 3724)

Version Date: Jun 13, 2018 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
William Zimmerman, University of Michigan; Sharon Werning Rivera, University of Michigan; Kirill Kalinin, University of Michigan

Version V5 ()

  • V5 [2018-06-13]
  • V4 [2018-05-09] unpublished
  • V3 [2016-06-23] unpublished

The Survey of Russian Elites contains two datasets. Dataset one contains data from the year 1999. Dataset two reflects the years 1993, 1995, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016. These data were collected as part of a larger study of mass-elite interactions in post-Soviet Russia. Questions asked pertain to the links between the domestic political economy and foreign policy perspectives. The dataset focuses on international relationships, security concerns, foreign policy, domestic politics and Economic concerns.

Respondents were asked their opinions about the national interests of Russia, the role of military force in international relations, political closeness with other countries, attitudes about expansion, the most likely threats to the stability and security of the country, establishing order in Russia, and how closely Russia should follow the route of developed countries in the future. Questions that focused on foreign policy asked respondents to rate their own influence on the decision-making process, how they learned about world and domestic events, how often they discussed such events with friends or family members, how great a threat the United States represented, attitudes toward military aid to other countries, the expansion of NATO, the importance of various foreign policy goals, the power and role of various state organizations in influencing foreign policy, and the legality of using military force. Questions that focused on national issues included attitudes about cutting expenditures in certain social and economic spheres, the rights of individuals versus the rights of society, the role of competition, the responsibility of government to its citizens, democracy, and which political system fits Russia best. Respondents were also asked about Russia and its relations with other countries (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, Japan, China), their attitudes about the economic environment and opening a business, feelings about work, different types of groups in the society, and their opinions about future economic conditions.

Demographic items include nationality, education levels, occupations of the respondent and other family members, sex, age, country of birth, marital status, language spoken in the home, income level, household composition, political party affiliation, religion, military service affiliation, and area of work.

Zimmerman, William, Rivera, Sharon Werning, and Kalinin, Kirill. Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016 . Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-06-13.

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National Council for Eurasian and East European Research


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1999 (Survey of Russian Elites (1999)), 1993 -- 2016 (Survey of Russian Elites (1993-2016))
1999-11-04 -- 1999-11-29 (Survey of Russian Elites (1999)), 1992-12 -- 2016-03 (Survey of Russian Elites (1993-2016))

Mid- and top-level officials from the following major elite groups in Moscow were interviewed: executive and legislative branches of government, mass media, scientific and educational institutions, private business, state-owned enterprises, the army, militia, and the federal security service.


Elite members from the major public and private sectors of Russian society in Moscow.


personal interviews

survey data

Several Likert-Type Scales were used.


2018-06-13 Author names were corrected, and the codebook was updated to reflect this correction.

2018-05-09 Title was changed from "Survey of Russian Elites: 1993-2012 [Moscow, Russia]" to "Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016." This dataset combines data from the previously deposited datasets to include the sampling year 2016.

2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Zimmerman, William, Sharon Werning Rivera, and Kirill Kalinin. Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016 . ICPSR03724-v5. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-06-13.

2016-06-23 Dataset 2 was updated to address an error in the data.

2014-07-28 1. A second dataset has been added that reflects the years 1993-2012. 2. Dataset 1 was updated with variable and value labels. 3. Variable names in Dataset 1 were changed to correspond with the variable names in Dataset 2.

2003-08-27 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

The data are not weighted and contain no weight variables.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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