Eurobarometer 84.4: Europeans in 2015, Development, Cooperation and Aid, Animal Welfare, and the Tobacco Black Market, November-December 2015 (ICPSR 36671)

Published: Jun 15, 2017

Principal Investigator(s):
European Commission


Version V1

Eurobarometer 84.4

The Eurobarometer series is a unique cross-national and cross-temporal survey program conducted on behalf of the European Commission. These surveys regularly monitor public opinion in the European Union (EU) member countries and consist of standard modules and special topic modules. The standard modules address attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as respondent and household demographics. The special topic modules address such topics as agriculture, education, natural environment and resources, public health, public safety and crime, and science and technology.

This round of Eurobarometer surveys covers the following special topics: (1) Development, Cooperation and Aid, (2) Animal Welfare, and (3) the Tobacco Black Market. Respondents' opinions were collected regarding importance of aid to developing countries, awareness on development aid, the focus of development, poverty, and their personal involvement in helping developing countries. Respondents were also asked about their understanding of animal welfare, their views on farm animals, animal-friendly food products, and international standards on animal welfare. Additional questions on respondent's opinions on black market tobacco and its associated problems, and organized crime were asked.

Demographic and other background information collected includes age, gender, nationality, marital status, occupation, age when respondent stopped full-time education, household composition, difficulties in paying bills, self-assessed level in society, self-assessed social class, and Internet use. In addition, country-specific data includes type and size of locality, region of residence, and language of interview (select countries only).

European Commission. Eurobarometer 84.4: Europeans in 2015, Development, Cooperation and Aid, Animal Welfare, and the Tobacco Black Market, November-December 2015. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-06-15.

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2015-11-28 -- 2015-12-07

Related Data Collections:

  • Module QA (Development, Cooperation, and Aid) largely replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 82.1 (ICPSR 36661)
  • Module QB (Animal Welfare) is partly based on the corresponding module surveyed in the framework of Eurobarometer 66.1 (ICPSR 21281)

The original data collection was carried out by TNS Opinion and Social on request of the European commission between November 28 - December 7, 2015. In some areas, fieldwork dates may vary slightly from this timeframe.

The setup files for this collection contain characters with diacritical marks used in many European languages.

At present the special topic "Nature based solutions" is under embargo. Variables for those questions under embargo are not included in this version of the collection. Please review the ICPSR/GESIS Cooperative Agreement and Embargo Provisions" document. The expected release date of the embargo, according to GESIS, is January 2018.

Access to GESIS data and documentation, including the GESIS DOI, for Eurobarometer 84.4 can be found through the GESIS Data Catalogue. Additional information on the Eurobarometer Survey Series and the Eurobarometer data can be found at the GESIS Eurobarometer website and ZACAT, respectively.

The basic sample design applied in all states is a multi-stage, random (probability) one. In each country, a number of sampling points were drawn with the probability proportional to population size (for a total coverage of the country) and to population density. In order to do so, the sampling points were drawn systematically from each of the "administrative regional units", after stratification by individual unit and type of area. They thus represent the whole territory of the countries surveyed according to the EUROSTAT NUTS II (or equivalent) and according to the distribution of the resident population of the respective nationalities in terms of metropolitan, urban, and rural areas. In each of the selected sampling points, a starting address was drawn, at random (following the "closest birthday rule"). All interviews were conducted face-to-face in the people's homes and in the appropriate national language. CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) was used in those countries where this technique was available. Please refer to the Technical Specifications section within the Questionnaire, as well as ZACAT, for additional sampling information.

In all, Eurobarometer 84.4 interviewed 27,672 citizens in the 28 countries of the European Union after the 2013 enlargement with the accession of Croatia. All respondents have the respective nationalities of the 28 European Union Member States, resident in each of the Member States, and are aged 15 and over.


In all countries, fieldwork was conducted on the basis of detailed and uniform instructions prepared by TNS opinion. Interviews were conducted face-to-face in people's home in the appropriate national language. As far as the data capture is concerned, CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) was used in those countries where this technique was available. Equivalent French and English basic questionnaires were developed for this Eurobarometer. These questionnaires were translated into other languages by the firms responsible for interviewing in each country. Back-translation procedures were applied for controlling semantic equivalence. Multi-language questionnaires are applied if appropriate (Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Malta).

survey data

computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

face-to-face interview



2017-06-15 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

For each sample (country or lower level region) through the post-stratification weighting procedure a comparison is carried out between the sample composition and a proper universe description. The universe description is made available by the National Survey Research Institutes and/or by EUROSTAT. On this basis a national weighting procedure, using marginal and intercellular weighting, is applied. As such in all countries, minimum sex, age, region NUTS II (basic regions as defined by the EUROSTAT nomenclature of territorial units for statistics), and size of locality are introduced in the iteration procedure. This post-stratification weighting is also referred to as redressement or non-response weighting. A design weight which would adjust for unequal selection probabilities (depending on the household size) is not made available. Please refer to the Weighting Documentation, as well as ZACAT, for additional weighting information.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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