Candidates for Office: Beliefs and Strategies, 1964 (ICPSR 34101)

Published: Aug 8, 2014

Principal Investigator(s):
John W. Kingdon, University of Michigan

Version V1

This study is based on face-to-face interviews with Wisconsin candidates, both winners and losers in the general election, running for various offices in 1964. Half of the sample is composed of a census of all 1964 Wisconsin candidates for the United States Congress and statewide elective office. The other half is a stratified random sample of candidates for the state legislature (both senate and assembly), chosen to equal in number the number of congressional and statewide candidates. The stratification is by geography in the state of Wisconsin.

For more information on the study, including detailed sampling and method information, please refer to Kingdon, J.W. (1968). Candidates for office: Beliefs and strategies. New York: Random House.

Kingdon, John W. Candidates for Office: Beliefs and Strategies, 1964. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-08-08.

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Institute of Public Administration

Brownell Fund at the University of Michigan

University of Wisconsin

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1965-03 -- 1965-04

The study was designed to explore politicians' beliefs about their constituents, the sorts of information they use to formulate those beliefs, and the strategies they adopt in order to gain and retain elective office.

The sample of respondents interviewed was chosen in two ways. First, half of the sample is composed of a census of the 1964 Wisconsin candidates for the following offices: United States Senator, United States Representative, Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and State Attorney General. All candidates for Congress and the statewide offices in 1964 were in the sample. The other half of the sample was composed of candidates for the state senate and assembly. A sample of legislative districts was drawn at the ratio of 1 in 8 in order to equal the number of candidates for the higher offices mentioned above, and both the winning and losing candidate in each of the chosen districts was interviewed. The sample of legislators was stratified by geographical area.


Persons running for political office in the state of Wisconsin in 1964.


survey data

Dr. Kingdon interviewed 62 of the 64 candidates in the sample, for a 97 percent rate of response.



2014-08-08 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

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The data are unweighted


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