The Justice of Land in a Land of Injustice, 2004 (ICPSR 30102)

Version Date: Nov 29, 2011 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
James L. Gibson, Washington University in St. Louis, and Stellenbosch University

Version V1

The Justice of Land in a Land of Injustice study was conducted in South Africa. This study examined the lingering effects of Apartheid, with a focus on land distribution. Respondents were asked about their media usage, their interest in politics, whether they discussed politics with others, the general economic situation in South Africa, and their family's standard of living. They were then asked about their relationships with other people, including whether they got along with those with differing opinions, viewpoints, and values. Respondents were also asked about property rights. Questions included whether the land rights of the wealthy should be reduced, if community rights were more important than individual rights, if only property owners should be allowed to vote, if people had a right to land they had lived on for a long time despite not owning it, whether people should receive compensation if their land should be taken away for land reform, the possible consequences of taking away land rights, if land should be taken away from certain groups only, or whether all land right claims should be denied. Respondents were queried about civil rights and freedoms. Questions included how important rights such as free speech, the right to protest, and the right to land ownership were to them. They were also asked whether it was acceptable for the police to search houses without permission in order to fight crime and if sometimes it would be necessary to ignore the law to solve problems. Respondents were then asked to list the groups they do and do not identify with, and how they felt about being a member of a group. They were asked to self-categorize into groups and then queried about their interactions and relations with other groups. They were asked how much contact they had with other groups and how many of their "true" friends were members of different groups. Respondents were also asked how well they understood the customs of other groups, if they were uncomfortable being around or sharing the same political party with a group, and if South Africa would be better off if other groups were not present. Next, respondents were asked about Apartheid. Questions included how many Black people were harmed by Apartheid, if large companies both inside and outside of South Africa were to blame for the harm done, and whether these companies should be forced to pay for the harm they caused under Apartheid. Additionally, they were queried about their life under Apartheid compared to their current life, including past experiences such as having to use a pass to move around, and being assaulted by the police. Respondents were also asked about their knowledge of government organizations including the South African Constitutional Court and Parliament, and their satisfaction with these organizations. They were then asked how important certain issues were to them such as drugs, unemployment, and racial reconciliation. Additionally, they were asked about the election of leaders, and whether multi-party elections were effective ways to choose those leaders. Respondents were also asked about the goods they owned and their financial assets. The survey also included several vignettes with scenarios of land disputes, which were read to the respondents. They were then asked their opinions of the possible outcomes of these vignettes. Demographic information included age, year of birth, highest education level completed, language spoken mostly at home, attendance at places of religious worship, religion, employment status, household composition, how long they have lived in their current community, whether that community had a Traditional Leader, ownership of goods, membership in organizations, whether someone close has died of AIDS, has AIDS, or are HIV positive, and province, size, and metropolitan area of residence. Finally, interviewer attributes and observations are included.

Gibson, James L. The Justice of Land in a Land of Injustice, 2004. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-11-29.

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National Science Foundation (0326198)


Users of these data must specifically acknowledge: (1) National Science Foundation support for the project - Law and Social Sciences Program (SES-0214451) and (2) the book analyzing the data - Gibson, James L. Overcoming Historical Injustices: Land Reconciliation in South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
2004-02-11 -- 2004-10-07
2004-02-11 -- 2004-10-07

To limit possible disclosure risk the variable TNAMEA, and the time of interview variables IVSMIN, IVFMIN, V1TIME, V2TIME, V3TIME, and V4TIME have been dropped from the public-use data.

For sampling information, please refer to the "Appendix B: Survey Methodology" section of the ICPSR codebook.

survey data

For response rates, please refer to the "Appendix B: Survey Methodology" section of the ICPSR codebook.


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Gibson, James L. The Justice of Land in a Land of Injustice, 2004. ICPSR30102-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-11-29.

2011-11-29 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Post-stratification weights include: BWEIGHT - Sample weights for the black sample, WWEIGHT - Sample weights for the white sample, CWEIGHT - Sample weights for the Coloured sample, IWEIGHT - Sample weights for the Indian sample, and NATWT - Sample weights for the entire national sample.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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