Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 1997: Experimental File [Bridge Survey] (ICPSR 2797)

Version Date: Oct 4, 1999 View help for published

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United States. Bureau of the Census


Version V1

This dataset is the bridge between the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 1992 and 1993 panels and the Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD) 1998-2002 annual surveys. The data collected in the 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels provide extensive background information from which to determine the effects of welfare reform. Interviewing the same households in the SPD will provide data covering the baseline pre-reform period, the reform implementation period, and the medium-term post-reform period. The data from SPD present estimates of the economic status and activities of the population of the United States. SPD provides monthly labor force data and, in addition, supplies supplemental data on work experience, income, and noncash benefits. Comprehensive work experience information is given on the employment status, occupation, and industry of persons 15 years old and over, as well as weeks worked and hours per week worked, reasons for not working full-time, total income, and income components. Information is available not only for persons currently in the labor force but also for those who are outside the labor force. Questions cover respondents' current desire for work, their past work experience, and their intentions for job-seeking. SPD also contains data covering nine noncash income sources: food stamps, school lunch programs, employer-provided group health insurance plans, employer-provided pension plans, personal health insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, CHAMPUS or military health care, and energy assistance. Basic demographic, social, and economic characteristics are supplied for each member of the household surveyed, including age, sex, race, ethnic origin, marital status, household relationship, education, and veteran status. Limited data are provided on housing unit characteristics such as number of units in structure and tenure.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), 1997: Experimental File [Bridge Survey]  . Ann Arbor, MI: [distributor], 1999-10-04.

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1997-04 -- 1997-06

(1) In this hierarchical dataset, there are three record types. The first record type is Household, with 153 variables in 37,830 records. The second type is Family, which has 68 variables in 33,061 records. The Person record consists of 395 variables in 77,630 records. The entire dataset contains a total of 148,521 records. (2) The dataset is a calendar-year file for 1996 intended to be used as a research file. Longitudinal analyses can be performed by linking this dataset to the SURVEY OF INCOME AND PROGRAM PARTICIPATION (SIPP), 1992 (ICPSR 2037) and SURVEY OF INCOME AND PROGRAM PARTICIPATION (SIPP) 1993 PANEL, LONGITUDINAL FILE (ICPSR 2421) using the following match keys: SIPP panel number, sample unit identification number, person number, and entry address ID (SIPP-PNL, PP-ID, PP-PNUM, and PP-ENTRY). (3) The data were collected using a modified Current Population Survey March questionnaire. This file was processed using programs for the March Current Population Survey Demographic Supplement. These data have undergone limited editing and review by the Census Bureau and should be used carefully. (4) Data on employment and income refer to the preceding year, although demographic data refer to the time of the survey. (5) The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.

The Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD) interviewed approximately 30,125 households from retired 1992 and 1993 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) panels, which were scientifically selected on the basis of area of residence to represent the nation as a whole.

The resident population of the United States, excluding persons living in institutions and military barracks.

personal interviews

survey data


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • United States. Bureau of the Census. SURVEY OF PROGRAM DYNAMICS (SPD), 1997: EXPERIMENTAL FILE [BRIDGE SURVEY]. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: United States. Bureau of the Census [producer], 1999. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1999.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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