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Aggregate Dynamics of Campaigns (ICPSR 26901)

Principal Investigator(s): Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Ohio State University; Darmofal, David , University of South Carolina; Farrell, Christian A., University of Oklahoma


Daily interactions between partisan elites, the media, and citizens are the driving dynamic of election campaigns and the central determinant of their outcomes. Accordingly, we develop a theory of campaign dynamics that departs from previous top-down models of campaign effects in its emphasis on the reciprocal campaign interactions between these actors. We examine these interactions with daily data on campaign expenditures, media coverage, and voter support in the 2000 presidential campaign. We find that partisan elites, the media, and citizens each played critical and interdependent roles in creating the dynamics of the campaign and producing the closest election in decades. We also find that the Gore campaign was hindered by its delayed responsiveness to the Bush campaign and its unwillingness to reinforce positive media coverage of Gore with increased campaign expenditures.

Access Notes

  • These data are flagged as replication datasets and are distributed exactly as they arrived from the data depositor. ICPSR has not checked or processed this material. Users should consult the investigator(s) if further information is desired.

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., David Darmofal, and Christian A. Farrell. Aggregate Dynamics of Campaigns. ICPSR26901-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-12-01. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR26901.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR26901.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    Bush, George W., campaign expenditures, campaigns, citizens, election campaigns, Gore, Al, media coverage, presidential campaigns, presidential elections, voting behavior

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Data Collection Notes:

A zipped package contains a syntax and system file (in SAS and Stata format), and documentation (in Word and text formats) needed to replicate the results of the study.

These data are part of ICPSR's Publication-Related Archive and are distributed exactly as they arrived from the data depositor. ICPSR has not checked or processed this material. Users should consult the investigators if further information is desired.



Original ICPSR Release:   2009-12-01

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