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Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950-1990 (ICPSR 2532)

Principal Investigator(s): Bollen, Kenneth A.


This study, a collection of crossnational measures of political democracy, contains over 800 variables for most of the world's independent countries. Political, social, and economic measures are available in the data file, and topics include adult suffrage, civil liberties, political rights, the openness, fairness, and competitiveness of the electoral process, executive and legislative selection and effectiveness, political party legitimacy, political participation, limitations on the executive branch of the government, level of democratization, economic openness, constitutional development, government legitimacy, and the outlook for freedom. A series of variables focuses on freedom and barriers to freedom, including freedom of peaceful assembly and association, mail censorship, women's rights, freedom of information and technology, freedom of political opposition, and freedom of the press. Compulsory membership in state organizations and political parties and compulsory religion in schools are addressed as well.

Access Notes

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Study Description


Bollen, Kenneth A. CROSS-NATIONAL INDICATORS OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACY, 1950-1990. ICPSR02532-v2. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina [producer], 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02532.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02532.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-8908361 and SES-9121564)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    civil rights, constitutions, democracy, economic indicators, freedom, government, government performance, nations, political issues, political participation, political parties, social indicators, world politics

Geographic Coverage:    Global

Time Period:   

  • 1950--1990

Date of Collection:   

  • 1950--1990

Universe:    Cross-national indicators of liberal democracy.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The SAS transport file was created using the SAS XPORT engine. (2) The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    A pooled cross-section of national indicators of liberal democracy.


Original ICPSR Release:   1999-02-17

Version History:

  • 2001-01-05 This collection has undergone routine ICPSR processing. The data are now available in ASCII format, and SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been created for this collection.

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