Housing Affordability Data System (HADS), 2004 (ICPSR 25204)

Published: Oct 29, 2009

Principal Investigator(s):
David A. Vandenbroucke, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development


Version V1

The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of housing unit level datasets that measures the affordability of housing units and the housing cost burdens of households, relative to area median incomes, poverty level incomes, and Fair Market Rents. The purpose of these datasets is to provide housing analysts with consistent measures of affordability and burdens over a long period. The datasets are based on the American Housing Survey (AHS) national files from 1985 through 2005 and the metropolitan files for 2002 and 2004. Users can link records in HADS files to AHS records, allowing access to all of the AHS variables. Housing-level variables include information on the number of rooms in the housing unit, the year the unit was built, whether it was occupied or vacant, whether the unit was rented or owned, whether it was a single family or multiunit structure, the number of units in the building, the current market value of the unit, and measures of relative housing costs. The dataset also includes variables describing the number of people living in the household, household income, and the type of residential area (e.g., urban or suburban).

Vandenbroucke, David A. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS), 2004. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-10-29. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR25204.v1

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ICPSR created a unique sequential record identifier variable named CASEID for use with online analysis.

The formats of the weight variable and variables measuring percentage of cost and income were adjusted in order to accommodate the values present in these variables. The variable SMSA was converted from character to numeric.

Value labels for the variables SMSA, VACANCY, METRO, FMTMETRO, BUILT and TYPE were added from the codebook documentation of the AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY, 2004: METROPOLITAN MICRODATA (ICPSR 4592).

This 2004 HADS dataset is based on the 2004 American Housing Survey (AHS) public use files, but only includes selected AHS variables. Users can make use of all the AHS variables by linking the HADS files to the standard AHS public use files. Since the AHS is a longitudinal survey, successive HADS files can be linked in order to examine changes in housing affordability over time, at the housing unit level. For more information on linking files, please refer to the codebook documentation.

The data available for download are not weighted and users will need to weight the data prior to analysis.

Variable names containing more than 16 characters were truncated in order to be compatible with current statistical programs. Therefore, variable names may differ slightly from those listed in the original documentation.

Please refer to the codebook documentation for more information about how each metropolitan area was sampled in the AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY, 2004: METROPOLITAN MICRODATA (ICPSR 4592).

housing unit

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Fair Market Rents and Income Limits


administrative records data

survey data



2009-10-29 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

The weight variable (WEIGHT) used in this dataset was based on the weight used in the AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY, 2004: METROPOLITAN MICRODATA (ICPSR 4592). Please refer to the codebook documentation for more information on how weights were derived.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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