Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Age 21 Data, Wave 6, 1993-1994 (ICPSR 24865)

Published: Apr 14, 2016

Principal Investigator(s):
Helen Z. Reinherz, Simmons College. School of Social Work

Version V1

The Simmons Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a community-based study that has prospectively traced the life course of a single-aged cohort from childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). Data were collected from multiple informants at seven major time points: age 5 (1977), age 6 (1978), age 9 (1980-1981), age 15 (1987), age 18 (1990), age 21 (1993-1994), and age 26 (1998). Since its inception in 1977, the SLS has utilized a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach, with the dual goals of: (1) tracing the development and course of academic difficulties, behavior problems, and psychopathology; and (2) identifying factors that promote health functioning from early childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). The SLS has consistently emphasized the identification of modifiable social and environmental risk and protective factors that can be targeted directly in prevention and intervention programs. To date, SLS has published 50 journal articles and 9 book chapters. The original study group was comprised of every child who entered kindergarten in the fall of 1977 in one public school district in a northeastern town in the United States. For this wave of the study, Wave 6, researchers spoke with respondents, then 21 years old in 1993, and their mothers or other close family member. This early-adulthood period was a varied developmental stage for the group: some respondents were away from home attending college, others were married and working full-time, and a number were living with their parents as they pursued their education and career paths. Similar to the age-18 data wave, diagnostic information on a variety of mental health problems was collected. In addition, the interviews focused on current education and career activities; family, peer, and romantic relationships; and other aspects of current behavioral and emotional functioning.

Reinherz, Helen Z. Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Age 21 Data, Wave 6, 1993-1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-04-14.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (5-R01 MH-41569)

These data are restricted from general dissemination. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete an Agreement for the Use of Confidential Data, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research. Apply for access to these data through the ICPSR Restricted Data Contract Portal, which can be accessed via the study home page.

1993 -- 1994

1993 -- 1994

Additional details about the Simmons Longitudinal Study can be found at the Simmons College School of Social Work Web site.

Data for Preschool Data, Wave 1, 1977 (ICPSR 22800), Kindergarten Data, Wave 2, 1978 (ICPSR 24861), Grade 3 Data, Wave 3, 1980-1981 (ICPSR 24862), Grade 9 Data, Wave 4, 1987 (ICPSR 24863), Grade 12 Data, Wave 5, 1990 (ICPSR 24864), and Age 26 Data, Wave 7, 1998 (ICPSR 24866) are also available from ICPSR.

In 1977, when the study began, participants were all from one school district in the northeastern United States. In later data waves, especially Age 21, Wave 6, 1993-1994 and Age 26, Wave 7, 1998, most respondents resided throughout the United States; a few resided out of the country.

The original file name as provided by the data producer for Part 1 was AGE21RQ, for Part 2 was AGE21PQ, for Part 3 was A21DIS3R, for Part 4 was AGE21DX, and for Part 5 was A21COMP.

Some instruments administered as part of this study may contain copyrighted instruments. Reproductions of the instruments are provided solely as documentation for the analysis of the data associated with this collection. Please contact the data producer for information on permissions to use the instruments for other purposes. To obtain further information in regard to the measures used for data collection, please refer to the ICPSR codebook for this data wave.

(1) The original 1977 sample included all youth registering for kindergarten in one public school system in a working class community in Massachusetts. The racial composition and gender division of the original sample were representative of the population of Massachusetts at that time. The sample included approximately equal numbers of males and females, and almost all (98 percent) were Caucasian. For information in regard to "Sample Retention" and "Effects of Sample Attrition," please review the ICPSR codebook available with this collection. (2) If the respondent lived out of the area, a telephone interview was conducted rather than a face-to-face interview.

Young adults aged 21 followed prospectively since age 5 when they were screened for entry into one public school system in the northeastern United States.


observational data

survey data

face-to-face interview

self-enumerated questionnaire

telephone interview



2016-04-14 The codebook and data collection instrument have been made publicly available.

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