National Survey of Miranda Warnings, 2005-2006 (ICPSR 23100)

Published: Oct 22, 2008

Principal Investigator(s):
Richard Rogers, University of North Texas; Daniel Shuman, Southern Methodist University

Version V1

Miranda warnings given by police to criminal suspects before they are questioned, are heterogeneous in their language, length, and content. Past research has focused mostly on individual Miranda warnings. Lacking in generalizability, those studies have had limited applicability to both public policy and professional practice. This data collection contains the results of a large-scale survey that examined Miranda warnings from across the United States and documented differences in their length and content. The first wave of the survey involved systematically contacting sheriff and public defender offices across the United States. These data were augmented with additional warnings from other Miranda investigators. The first wave generated 532 unique Miranda warnings. The second wave surveyed prosecutors (i.e., district attorneys and state attorneys) across the United States using similar procedures. This survey focused on 28 states with low response rates (i.e., less than or equal to 20 percent of counties) in the first wave. This survey also included responses to the wave one survey that were received from public defenders months after the deadline for the first wave. The second wave generated an additional 358 unique Miranda warnings that were written in English and intended for general use.

Rogers, Richard, and Shuman, Daniel. National Survey of Miranda Warnings, 2005-2006. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-10-22.

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2005 -- 2006

2005 -- 2006

Contact information for district attorneys and state attorneys was accessed through national and state prosecutor associations, plus United States Attorney Web sites (e.g., and augmented by information from the National Association of Counties (NACo), and from

All counties in the United States were approached.

All law enforcement jurisdictions in the United States.

Miranda warning

survey data

mail questionnaire




  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.