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Polity III: Regime Type and Political Authority, 1800-1994 (ICPSR 06695)

Principal Investigator(s): Jaggers, Keith; Gurr, Ted Robert


This dataset, a modified and updated version of POLITY II: POLITICAL STRUCTURES AND REGIME CHANGE, 1800-1986 (ICPSR 9263), focuses on indicators of political authority and regime type for 177 members of the international system. Variables include two indicators of regime type (autocracy and democracy) and eight indicators of political authority (regulation of executive recruitment, competitiveness of executive recruitment, openness of executive recruitment, monocratism, constraints on the chief executive, regulation of political participation, competitiveness of political participation, and centralization of state authority).

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Raw Data File - Download All Files (1.436 MB)

Study Description


Jaggers, Keith, and Ted Robert Gurr. POLITY III: REGIME CHANGE AND POLITICAL AUTHORITY, 1800-1994. 2nd ICPSR version. Boulder, CO: Keith Jaggers/College Park, MD: Ted Robert Gurr [producers], 1995. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1996. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06695.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06695.v2

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Scope of Study

Geographic Coverage:    Global

Time Period:   

  • 1800--1994

Date of Collection:   

  • 1994--1995

Universe:    Annual observations from 1800 to 1994 of 20 historical countries and 157 contemporary countries encompassing all independent members of the international system with populations of greater than 500,000 in the early 1990s.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

The variables in Part 1, Raw Data File, are in list format with data values separated by one or more blanks.


Data Source:

Political characteristics were derived from a wide variety of historical and contemporary sources, including Banks, Arthur S. CROSS-NATIONAL TIME SERIES DATA. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York, Center for Comparative Political Research, 1986. Fiscal data were culled from the following sources: (1) Mitchell, B.R. EUROPEAN HISTORICAL STATISTICS, 1750-1970. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1976, (2) Mitchell, B.R. INTERNATIONAL HISTORICAL STATISTICS: AFRICA AND ASIA. New York, NY: New York University Press, 1982, (3) Mitchell, B.R. INTERNATIONAL HISTORICAL STATISTICS: THE AMERICAS AND AUSTRALASIA. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, 1983, and (4) THE EUROPA YEARBOOK: A WORLD SURVEY. London: Europa Publications Limited, annual (1969-1988).

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1996-02-26

Version History:

  • 1996-11-21 A duplicate case entry for South Korea, Year 1876 (case 7301876), has been deleted and two new cases, Year 1858 for the Orange Free State (case 5641858) and Year 1922 for Egypt (case 6511922), have been added to this collection. Thus, the total number of cases has changed from 13,907 to 13,908 observations. In addition, the data have been reformatted from tab-delimited to space-delimited format.

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