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Central and Eastern Euro-barometer 4: Political and Economic Change, November 1993 (ICPSR 6466)

Principal Investigator(s): Reif, Karlheinz, Commission of the European Communities; Cunningham, George, Commission of the European Communities


The fourth round of Central and Eastern Euro-Barometer surveys was carried out in Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Poland, Romania, European Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. The surveys assessed public support for the European Union as well as for political and economic change by asking respondents to comment on conditions within their own countries, the financial situation of their households as compared to 12 months ago and their expectations for the next year, and their attitudes toward a market economy, general economic reforms, and the process of privatizing state enterprises. Respondents were also queried about their level of satisfaction with the way democracy was developing in their country, how much respect there was for human rights, and the nations or organizations they felt the future of their country was most closely tied to. Demographic data collected on participants varied from country to country and included information such as age of the household head, education, age when education finished, occupation, marital status, employment status, religion, mother tongue, ethnic background, vote intention, political party preference, union membership, left/right political placement, sex, household composition, region, and income.

Series: Central and Eastern Eurobarometer Survey Series

Access Notes

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Study Description


Reif, Karlheinz, and George Cunningham. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EURO-BAROMETER 4: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE, NOVEMBER 1993. ICPSR06466-v3. Conducted by Gallup International (Europe), London. Mannheim, Germany: Zentrum fur Europaische Umfrageanalysen und Studien/Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung [producers], 2003. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2005-06-09. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06466.v3

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06466.v3

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    democracy, economic conditions, economic integration, economic reform, European Economic Community, European Union, human rights, international alliances, political attitudes, political awareness, political change, political reform, privatization, public opinion, quality of life, social attitudes, social change

Geographic Coverage:    Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Europe, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1993-11-01--1993-12-05

Date of Collection:   

  • 1993-11-01--1993-12-05

Universe:    Citizens of 16 Central and Eastern European countries, aged 15 and over, residing in Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Ukraine.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Data processing for this collection was performed at the Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung in Cologne, Germany.


Sample:    Multistage national probability samples.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview


Original ICPSR Release:   1995-03-16

Version History:

  • 2005-06-09 This data collection has been reformatted and updated in conformance with current Eurobarometer processing standards. Many variable names, variable labels, and value labels have been revised to current naming conventions. Some combined variables have been broken out into several variables. Revised SAS and SPSS setup files and an updated documentation file are now available as well.
  • 2002-05-21 SAS setup files are now available and the SPSS setup files have been updated. Also, a complete version of the questionnaire is now available.

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