21st Century Americanism: Nationally Representative Survey of the United States Population, 2004 (ICPSR 27601)

Principal Investigator(s): Schildkraut, Deborah, Tufts University; Grosse, Ashley, Washington State University. Social and Economic Sciences Research Center


The 21st Century Americanism survey was conducted to study (1) the multidimensional nature of American identity ("Americanism"); (2) resentment among Whites toward immigrants, Latinos, and Asians, fueled by perceptions that these groups violate the cherished norms that constitute American identity ("symbolic nativism"); (3) how perceptions of discrimination affect the process of "becoming American" among ethnic minorities ("reactive ethnicity"); and (4) the relationships among these issues and public opinion on policies that address ethnic change. The data collection began in July 2004 and was completed by October 2004. This nationally representative random-digit dial telephone survey has 2,800 respondents and includes oversamples of Blacks, Latinos, and Asians in the United States. It contains questions that allow for the examination of the causes and consequences of two facets of American identity: (1) how people define the normative content of American identity ("identity content"); and (2) the extent to which people think of themselves primarily as American rather than primarily as a member of a pan-ethnic (i.e., Latino or Asian) or national origin group ("identity attachment"). The survey can be used to test hypotheses regarding whether the alleged traditional consensus on what it means to be American is breaking down, or whether people are increasingly rejecting an American identity and instead prioritizing pan-ethnic or national origin identities. It can also be used to examine how these aspects of one's identity affect political attitudes and behaviors, such as trust in government, voting, and one's sense of obligation to the national community. Demographic variables include gender, age, country of origin, United States citizenship status, race, Hispanic origin, and language and educational attainment. Variables focusing on economic characteristics include employment status and household income.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Public-Use Data
Analyze Online:
DS2:  Restricted-Use Data

Instructional Resources

Instructional guides that utilize this dataset are available: