||GIS data are provided by ICPSR in files that can be used to perform geospatial analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) software package.
||Qualitative data are provided by ICPSR in files that can be used with a qualitative software package or word processing software for qualitative research. Qualitative data are often collected using qualitative research methods and stored as textual information or narratives, (e.g., collected through in-depth interviews, focus groups, site visits, court records, and open-text answers to survey questions provided separately from the quantitative data), images, and audio recordings (although the latter two are currently not available from ICPSR).
||Quantitative data are provided by ICPSR in statistical software packages (e.g., SPSS, SAS, Stata, and R) as well as fixed-column and tab-delimited ASCII formats that can be imported into a statistical software package and in Excel. Quantitative data are primarily numeric and can be either microdata or macrodata. A common form of microdata is of values that are the coded responses to survey questions (e.g., a 'no' response is coded as '0' and a 'yes' response coded as '1') and where each row in the data file corresponds to the surveyed unit (e.g., individual, household, or organization) and each column corresponds to a survey question. Macrodata consist of aggregated figures (e.g., summaries of the properties of individuals or economic statistics) or system-level data from macro sources that form indicators and cannot be disaggregated to lower level units (e.g., institutional variables, country-level economic indicators).