The Source for Crime and Justice Data

Annual Parole Survey and Annual Probation Survey Resource Guide

About the Annual Parole Survey and Annual Probation Survey Series

These surveys collect administrative data from probation and parole agencies in the United States. Data collected include the total number of adults on state and federal probation and parole on January 1 and December 31 of each year, the number of adults entering and exiting probation and parole supervision each year, and the characteristics of adults under the supervision of probation and parole agencies. The surveys cover all 50 states, the federal system, and the District of Columbia.

Annual Parole Survey and Annual Probation Survey Data

The Annual Parole and Annual Probation Surveys provide a count of the total number of persons supervised in the community on Janyary 1 and December 31 of each year, and a count of the number entering and leaving supervision each year. The surveys also provide counts of parolees and probationers by certain characteristics, such as gender, race and Hispanic or Latino origin, and supervision status.

Data in the files may not be comparable to previously published BJS reports or statistical tables. Some data may have been updated since its initial realease. In addition several items from the questionnaire may have ben combined and reported as a single statistic in prior BJS reports and tables. For example, "unknown", "calculated unknown", and "other" variables may have been combined, and "completion" and "discharge other completion" may have been combined and reported as a single statistic.

Methodological Information

Respondents

The Annual Parole Surveys are sent to respondents which include central reporters, the California Youth Authority, and municipal agencies. Some states have mulitiple reporters.

The Annual Probation Surveys are sent to respondents which include central state reporters, separate state, county, and court agencies. Some states have multiple reporters. Data are also estimated for some agencies that did not provide data.

The Bureau of Justice Statistics depends entirely upon the voluntary participation of parole supervising agencies for the Annual Parole Surveys and of state central reporters and separate state, county, or court agencies for the Annual Probation Surveys. Because many jurisdictions update their population counts, the numbers for January 1 of a given year may differ from those previously published on December 31 of the previous year.

For changes in reporting within particular jurisdictions after 2000, users should refer to BJS' annual bulletin series Probation and Parole in the United States beginning with the 2008 bulletin. The annual bulletins are available on the BJS website (last accessed January, 2012).

Changes in Collection of Information on Race and Hispanic Origin

Several changes have occurred in how data on race and ethnicity have been collected by the Annual Parole Survey and the Annual Probation Survey since 1994:

2005

  • A response category was added for "Two or more races (not of Hispanic origin)" (variable name TWORACE).
  • The response category "Not known" was added (variable name UNKRACE).

2001

  • A single item was first used to collect information on both race and Hispanic origin, replacing two separate items which had been used in 2000 and prior years. Consequently, starting in 2001, the following variables exclude persons of Hispanic origin: WHITE (response category "white"), BLACK (black/African American), AMINALK (American Indian/Alaska Native), AMINALK (Native Hawaiian/Pacific-Islander), and ADDRACE ("Additional categories in your information system"). Before 2001, these same variables include persons, by race, of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin; e.g. prior to 2001, the variable WHITE includes whites of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin, etc.

    Counts of persons of Hispanic origin, regardless of race, are reported by the variable HISP, both before and after 2001. Before 2001, separate counts were also obtained for those who were not of Hispanic origin (NOTHISP).

  • The response category "Additional categories in your information system - Specify" replaced the category "Other categories in your information system - Specify". Both are reported with the same variable name (ADDRACE).

1999

  • The response category "Other categories in your information system - Specify" replaced the category "Other - Specify" in the item which collected information on race. Both are reported with the same variable name (ADDRACE).

1998

  • Two separate response categories "Asian" (variable name ASIAN) and "Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander" (HAWPAC) replaced the single category "Asian/Pacific Islander" (ASHAWPAC). Variables ASIAN and HAWPAC appear in archive files for 1998 and later; the variable ASHAWPAC appears in archive datasets for 1997 and earlier.

Crosswalk files

Annual Parole Survey Series

A crosswalk (.xls 79K) of the items included in each year of the Annual Parole Survey series, and the variable names and variable labels that have been assigned in the NACJD documentation and datasets are listed in the table.

Annual Probation Survey Series

A crosswalk (.xls 85K) of the items included in each year of the Annual Probation Survey series, and the variable names and variable labels that have been assigned in the NACJD documentation and datasets are listed in the table.

Download Annual Parole Survey and Annual Probation Survey Data

Annual Parole Survey Series

Annual Probation Survey Series

User Support

Questions regarding the Annual Parole Survey and Annual Probation Survey data should be directed to the Bureau of Justice Statistics: askbjs@ojp.usdoj.gov