Data & Documentation

Click on the study title to link to the full study description.

Design, Validation, and Dissemination of Measures of Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics
Principal Investigator(s): Hill, Heather, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Loewenberg Ball, Deborah, University of Michigan; Bass, Hyman, University of Michigan; Phelps, Geoffrey, University of Michigan; Blunk, Merrie, University of Michigan

This study spans several years of data collection by the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) project. This project's main purpose was to develop a suite of instruments measuring K-8 teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT). These instruments are typically used to evaluate content-focused mathematics professional development.... More

This study spans several years of data collection by the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) project. This project's main purpose was to develop a suite of instruments measuring K-8 teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT). These instruments are typically used to evaluate content-focused mathematics professional development. Over the years, this project piloted these measures in several contexts to establish psychometric properties of the instruments:

  • With a nationally representative sample of middle school mathematics teachers in 2005 and again in 2006. The same sample was surveyed at both time points.
  • With a nationally representative sample of elementary school teachers in 2008.
  • With smaller samples of grade 4-8 teachers on specific mathematical topics (e.g., a form on rational number, a form on proportional reasoning).

The specific research questions varied with the sample. For the later pilots, we were interested in the psychometric properties of the measures and teacher scores' relationship to other teacher characteristics, such as their mathematical background and years of experience.

High School Exit Examinations (HSEE), 1977-2007 [United States]
Principal Investigator(s): Warren, John Robert

Research on the correlates and consequences of state high school exit examinations (HSEEs) requires annual state-level data. This dataset contains information on every year in which a state mandated HSEEs as part of their general graduation requirements. Archival data on each states' HSEE policy was collected in order to (1) test hypotheses about the factors that have lead to the diffusion of state HSEEs over time and across states, and (2) test hypotheses about the impact of state HSEEs on... More

Research on the correlates and consequences of state high school exit examinations (HSEEs) requires annual state-level data. This dataset contains information on every year in which a state mandated HSEEs as part of their general graduation requirements. Archival data on each states' HSEE policy was collected in order to (1) test hypotheses about the factors that have lead to the diffusion of state HSEEs over time and across states, and (2) test hypotheses about the impact of state HSEEs on student academic achievement and high school graduation rates. These variables were derived from a variety of primary source materials, including public records, legal archival resources, newspaper reports, and communications with officials in state education agencies. In order to make these materials available to future users, a separate linked data file was created that (1) provides a full bibliographic reference for each piece of source material, (2) gives the three-digit unique identifier that is associated with it, and (3) provides the name of the file that houses the actual document. The data describe not only which graduating classes in which states faced these requirements, but also the level of difficulty of the HSEEs. The data cover graduating classes between the years 1977 and 2007. For data on more recent graduating classes, please see the annual reports on HSEEs issued by the Center on Education Policy.

Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century
Principal Investigator(s): Schmidt, William, Michigan State University

MT21 is a cross-national study of the preparation of middle school mathematics teachers. Countries participating included Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), South Korea (Korea), Bulgaria, Germany, Mexico, and the United States. Data were collected from teachers in their first and last year of preparation by sampling institutions in each country. Future teachers were asked about their backgrounds, course-taking and program activities, knowledge relevant to their teaching (mathematical and pedagogical), and... More

MT21 is a cross-national study of the preparation of middle school mathematics teachers. Countries participating included Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), South Korea (Korea), Bulgaria, Germany, Mexico, and the United States. Data were collected from teachers in their first and last year of preparation by sampling institutions in each country. Future teachers were asked about their backgrounds, course-taking and program activities, knowledge relevant to their teaching (mathematical and pedagogical), and beliefs and perspectives on content and pedagogy.

The 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data revealed that countries with higher achievement have teachers who teach substantially different content than that of their less accomplished counterparts (see Schmidt et al., 1996; Schmidt et al., 2001). The 1996 Report of the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future argued that what teachers know and do in the classroom matters for pupil learning. It also argued that teacher education might be a viable policy tool to improve the quality of education (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996). United States reform efforts are consistent with this line of thought. They have introduced standards to measure teacher quality as it relates to student achievement. This, in turn, led to accountability concerns regarding teacher preparation programs (INTASC, 1995; Murray, 2000; Leithwood, Edge and Jantzi, 1999; NCATE, 2000).

The MT21 Project was designed to answer the following question: how shall we prepare our future teachers to teach a more rigorous curriculum to all students? Several assumptions were made going into this work: the concepts and models defining teacher preparation are not fixed across the world. Recognizing and understanding this diversity to develop a cross-national study of teacher preparation poses a complex and challenging problem. It is hoped that the resulting international data would not only serve to provide policy insights but would also bring about change by making visible contrasts with other countries in terms of teacher preparation in the United States.

RETA: Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2005-2008
Principal Investigator(s): Spillane, James; Peterson, Penelope; Sherin, Miriam; Fisher, Stephen; Konstantopoulos, Spyridon

The Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2005-2008 is a part of the RETA Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work focused on...More

The Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2005-2008 is a part of the RETA Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work focused on both formally designated and informal leaders and their leadership routines. The objective was to develop valid and reliable instruments that make the day-to-day practice of school leadership for mathematics instruction more transparent, as well as measure changes in this practice over time. This project utilized Social Network Surveys, Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), and Daily Practice Logs. To validate these instruments, a combination of shadowing, end of day cognitive interviews, and semi-structured interviews was used. These instruments were used to describe and analyze when and how teachers and other educators solicit or provide instructional advice and the degree to which these resources influence their work.

The first component of the Chicago longitudinal study involved the administration of the School Staff Social Network Questionnaire (SSSNQ) to staff in a purposeful sample of 22 schools starting in the Winter of 2005 and continuing through the Spring of 2006. A 23rd school responded, but was dropped from analysis due to a problem with the structure of the survey questions. All teachers and administrators at each school were asked to take the survey online. In January 2007 the Office of Mathematics and Science for Chicago Public Schools, with the support of the Chicago Community Trust, asked for the School Staff Social Network Questionnaire (SSSNQ) to be administered to 23 Chicago public schools (both K-8 and middle schools) as part of the work with these schools around distributed leadership for mathematics and language arts instruction. At the time of the study, all of these schools were participating in a leadership and school-restructuring initiative called the Cluster 4 Middle Grades Program. In May and June 2007, the survey was administered to 19 of the schools (the other four schools declined the invitation). In June of 2008, the SSSNQ was administered again, but this time it was only given to the 12 schools that had a response rate over 70 percent in 2007.

RETA: Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Qualitative Interviews, 2006
Principal Investigator(s): Spillane, James; Peterson, Penelope; Sherin, Miriam; Fisher, Stephen; Konstantopoulos, Spyridon

The Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Qualitative Interviews, 2006, is a part of the RETA: Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work focused on... More

The Chicago School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Qualitative Interviews, 2006, is a part of the RETA: Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work focused on both formally designated and informal leaders and their leadership routines. The objective was to develop valid and reliable instruments that make the day-to-day practice of school leadership for mathematics instruction more transparent, as well as measure changes in this practice over time. This project utilized Social Network Surveys, Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), and Daily Practice Logs. To validate these instruments, a combination of shadowing, end of day cognitive interviews, and semi-structured interviews was used. These instruments were used to describe and analyze when and how teachers and other educators solicit or provide instructional advice and the degree to which these resources influence their work.

In order to validate the survey, qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of teachers at 6 of these 22 schools in early Spring 2006. A purposeful sample of schools was selected to maximize variation so that the sample included two public schools (an elementary and a middle school), two Catholic schools, and two charter schools. The interviewees were selected based on an analysis of the SSSNQ data. Using a purposeful sampling strategy, the following were selected in each school: formal leaders (i.e., Principal, Assistant Principal, Math Specialist, Literacy Specialist), informal leaders (i.e., two teachers who were not formally designated leaders but had more people go to them for math advice relative to other people in their school), and followers (i.e., two to four teachers who were not formal or informal leaders). Interviews with 49 staff members focused mainly on their advice-seeking practices around mathematics instruction. Using a semi-structured protocol, researchers asked interviewees about their advice or knowledge seeking related to mathematics instruction and their views of leadership and change efforts underway at the school.

RETA: Lincoln School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2007-2008
Principal Investigator(s): Spillane, James; Peterson, Penelope; Sherin, Miriam; Fisher, Stephen; Konstantopoulos, Spyridon

The Lincoln School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2007-2008 is a part of the RETA: Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work... More

The Lincoln School Staff Social Network Questionnaire Longitudinal Study, 2007-2008 is a part of the RETA: Distributed Leadership for Middle School Mathematics Education: Content Area Leadership Expertise in Practice study. The goal of RETA was to design and validate a series of research instruments to identify leadership for mathematics instruction in middle schools and for documenting instructional leadership practice. Adopting a distributed perspective on leadership, this work focused on both formally designated and informal leaders and their leadership routines. The objective was to develop valid and reliable instruments that make the day-to-day practice of school leadership for mathematics instruction more transparent, as well as measure changes in this practice over time. This project utilized Social Network Surveys, Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), and Daily Practice Logs. To validate these instruments, a combination of shadowing, end of day cognitive interviews, and semi-structured interviews was used. These instruments were used to describe and analyze when and how teachers and other educators solicit or provide instructional advice and the degree to which these resources influence their work.

For the Lincoln longitudinal study, there was a partnership with the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, as part of the Math in the Middle MSP. In 2007, the School Staff Social Network Survey (SSSNQ) was administered to all 10 middle schools in the Lincoln Public Schools District. In 2008, Math in the Middle was collaborated with to conduct the SSSNQ for a second administration in all 10 middle schools, which provided longitudinal data to analyze changes in formal and informal leadership for mathematics education in these schools. The SSSNQ was administered for the third time to the entire cohort of Math in the Middle Teaching Associates that have undergone training through the Math in the Middle MSP.

State Investments in Successful Transitions to Adulthood, 1970-2000
Principal Investigator(s): Leicht, Kevin, University of Iowa; Hogan, Dennis P., Brown University

Summary: This research investigated the relationship between ascribed characteristics, family resources, personal circumstances, and public policies as these affect the transition to adulthood. The transition to adulthood has been extensively studied during the last four decades using a variety of well-established approaches and methods.... More

This research investigated the relationship between ascribed characteristics, family resources, personal circumstances, and public policies as these affect the transition to adulthood. The transition to adulthood has been extensively studied during the last four decades using a variety of well-established approaches and methods. Changes in the structure and pace of youth-to-adult transitions have been extensively documented, along with the increasingly complex lives young people lead as they negotiate the transition to adulthood. Relatively less attention has been devoted to the factors leading to these changes, and a variety of public policies related to state economic development efforts, education, and financial support for higher education have yet to be examined in any detail. This project built on the principal investigators' prior work on life course transitions and state economic and political contexts to estimate behavioral models of the late 20th and early 21st century transition to adulthood.

Specifically, this research:

  1. Defines and describes the successful transition to adulthood in terms of human capital accumulation, attainment of economic security, and partnership and life satisfaction.
  2. Identifies group and individual disparities in successful transitions, defined by ascribed characteristics, family resources, and personal circumstances.
  3. Measures the impact of the social and economic environments where these transitions occur and the effects of state structures and policies on the successful transition to adulthood, specifically examining whether the impact of these state policies differs by race/ethnicity, immigrant status, and disability status.

The analysis used discrete hazard modeling and hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) to build a general model of the transition to adulthood on a wide variety of dimensions (from educational attainment to stable employment in a full-time job, employment in a job with health insurance, to independent residence and life satisfaction) and examined systematic changes in the process leading to adulthood across cohorts and across race/ethnic, immigrant, and disability groups.

Study of Instructional Improvement (SII)
Principal Investigator(s): Loewenberg Ball, Deborah; Cohen, David K.; Rowan, Brian

To meet the growing need for high-quality research on whole-school approaches to instructional improvement, researchers at the University of Michigan School of Education, in cooperation with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE), conducted a large-scale, mixed method, longitudinal Study of Instructional Improvement to investigate the design, implementation, and effects on student achievement of three of the most widely-adopted whole-school school reform programs in the United States... More

To meet the growing need for high-quality research on whole-school approaches to instructional improvement, researchers at the University of Michigan School of Education, in cooperation with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE), conducted a large-scale, mixed method, longitudinal Study of Instructional Improvement to investigate the design, implementation, and effects on student achievement of three of the most widely-adopted whole-school school reform programs in the United States: the Accelerated Schools (ASP), America's Choice (AC), and Success for All (SFA). Each of these school reform programs sought to make "comprehensive" changes in the instructional capacity of schools, and each was being implemented in schools in diverse social environments. Each program, however, also pursued a different design for instructional improvement, and each developed particular strategies for assisting schools in the change process. In order to better understand the process of whole-school reform, Study of Instructional Improvement (SII) developed a program of research to examine how these interventions operated and to investigate their impact on schools' instructional practice and student achievement in reading and mathematics. The research program had 3 components: a longitudinal survey of 115 schools (roughly 30 schools in each of the 3 interventions under study, plus 26 matched control schools), case studies of the 3 interventions under study, and detailed case studies of 9 schools implementing the interventions under study (plus 3 matched control schools). Across all components of the SII study, the research examined alternative designs for instructional improvement, alternative strategies for putting these designs into practice in local schools, and the extent to which alternative designs and support strategies promote substantial changes in instructional capacity and student achievement in reading and mathematics. The most comprehensive component of SII was a large-scale, longitudinal, multisurvey study of schools. The use of survey research methods was intended to track the course of schools' engagement in comprehensive approaches to instructional improvement and to investigate the conditions under which this led to substantive changes in instructional practices and student achievement in reading and mathematics. The study design called for each school to participate in the study for a period of three years, although some schools voluntarily provided a fourth year of teacher, leader, and school-level information (no additional student-level data). In addition, survey researchers conducted interviews, primarily a telephone protocol with a parent or guardian of each cohort student in order to gather information on students' family background and on students' home and community environments. Researchers also gathered data from school leaders and others about the policy environments in which the schools are located. Another component of the research program involved the development of detailed case studies of a small number schools participating in the study. The case studies gathered observational, interview, and documentary evidence to better understand how instructional change processes unfolded in different school settings. Case studies were conducted in 12 schools operating in differently configured state and district policy environments. In each environment, researchers selected schools participating in one of the interventions under study as well as a "matched" control school. Finally, case study data was used to chart key similarities and differences in the design and operations of the interventions under study, to analyze how different design features affect operating strategies, and to better understand the general problem of how intervention programs can work to devise and "bring to scale" a feasible scheme for improving instruction in local schools.

Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families, 2005
Principal Investigator(s): Sacerdote, Bruce

This study, conducted January 2004 to June 2006, was undertaken to assess the health status, educational attainment, and income of adult Korean-American adoptees and their adoptive families. The study focused on families who adopted a Korean-American child through Holt International Children's Services from 1970 to 1980. The principal investigator hoped to identify the effects of large-scale changes in family environment on children's outcomes using data on adults who were adopted in infancy.... More

This study, conducted January 2004 to June 2006, was undertaken to assess the health status, educational attainment, and income of adult Korean-American adoptees and their adoptive families. The study focused on families who adopted a Korean-American child through Holt International Children's Services from 1970 to 1980. The principal investigator hoped to identify the effects of large-scale changes in family environment on children's outcomes using data on adults who were adopted in infancy. Korean-American adoptees placed through Holt International Children's Services had been quasi-randomly assigned to these families in infancy using a queuing (first-come, first-served) policy. One adoptive parent from each family was surveyed, as well as a small subset of adult adoptees, and each case represented an adopted or non-adopted child in the family. Adoptive parents were asked to give their age, sex, marital status, occupation, education level, household income, height, weight, tobacco and alcohol usage, and the number of children they had. Adoptive parents also gave information on their adopted and non-adopted children's age, sex, marital status, education level, income, weight, height, undergraduate institution, number of children, and whether their children smoked, drank alcohol, or had asthma. For adopted children, parents gave the arrival age of the child and whether the child was adopted through Holt International. Adoptive parents also indicated whether they were aware of and had used services such as workshops and referral services offered by Holt. Since the survey relied on parent reports of their adult children's outcomes, surveys were also sent to a small subset of adoptees. Their surveys included the same questions asked of their adoptive parents, as well as the adoptee's value of assets, religion, and frequency of religious attendance. The study also contained information on adoptees' birth parents obtained from Holt International's administrative records and constructed variables that analyzed household composition, population characteristics, and the education and health status of the adoptive family.

Third International Mathematics and Science Study: International Curriculum Analysis, 1992-1995
Principal Investigator(s): Schmidt, William

The International Curriculum Analysis (ICA) study provided curricular and textbook information from each country participating in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS was a comparative study of education in mathematics and the sciences conducted in over 40 countries on five continents. The goal of TIMSS was to measure student achievement in mathematics and science in participating countries and to assess some of the curricular and classroom factors... More

The International Curriculum Analysis (ICA) study provided curricular and textbook information from each country participating in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS was a comparative study of education in mathematics and the sciences conducted in over 40 countries on five continents. The goal of TIMSS was to measure student achievement in mathematics and science in participating countries and to assess some of the curricular and classroom factors that are related to student learning in these subjects. The study was intended to provide educators and policy makers with an unparalleled and multidimensional perspective on mathematics and science curricula; their implementation; the nature of student performance in mathematics and science; and the social, economic, and educational context in which these occur.

Below is a description of each of the types of data files found in this study.

The Textbook Specific and Curriculum Guide Specific data files contain overall characteristic information, the number of pages, size of book, publisher, etc. pertaining to material used within a country for all countries involved in the study.

The General Topic Trace Mapping data files contain questionnaire responses for each specific science and mathematics topic for each grade.

The Document Description data file contains document ID, name, subject, publisher and publishing data for each document provided by each country in the study.

The Unit Level data files contain information describing a specific unit within a document, used for both textbooks and curriculum guides.

The Block Level data files contain specific curricular information about the blocks contained within each unit.

The Textbook Coverage data files contain summaries of context coverage for each country's textbooks and the performance expectation codes of those textbooks, both Mathematics and Science. The coverage rate for each content topic is expressed as the average percent that particular topic is mentioned in each of the country's textbooks.

The Textbook Characteristics data file contains derived variables from 400 textbooks used in 45 countries. The variables captures the frequency with which content material such as activities, exercise or question sets, instructional narratives and other instructional tools, as well as performance expectation related material are found within these textbooks.

OUR PARTNERS: A E R A National Science Foundation I C P S R