Executions in the United States, 1608-2002: The ESPY File (ICPSR 8451)
Principal Investigator(s): Espy, M. Watt, Headland, Alabama; Smykla, John Ortiz, University of South Alabama. Department of Political Science and Criminal Justice
This collection furnishes data on executions performed under civil authority in the United States between 1608 and 2002. The dataset describes each individual executed and the circumstances surrounding the crime for which the person was convicted. Variables include age, race, name, sex, and occupation of the offender, place, jurisdiction, date, and method of execution, and the crime for which the offender was executed. Also recorded are data on whether the only evidence for the execution was official records indicating that an individual (executioner or slave owner) was compensated for an execution.
These data are freely available.
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Espy, M. Watt, and John Ortiz Smykla. EXECUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1608-2002: THE ESPY FILE. 4th ICPSR ed. Compiled by M. Watt Espy and John Ortiz Smykla, University of Alabama. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 2004. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08451.v4
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08451.v4
This study was funded by:
- National Science Foundation (SES 84-09725)
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Scope of Study
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Universe: Executions that occurred under civil authority in the United States or within territory that later became the United States.
Data Types: aggregate data
Data Collection Notes:
The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.
state Department of Corrections records, newspapers, county histories, proceedings of state and local courts, holdings of historical societies, and other listings of executions
- Performed consistency checks.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1988-01-06
- 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
- 2004-02-27 Data from the years 1992 through 2002 have been added to the data file. The SPSS and SAS data definition statements have been updated accordingly and Part 2 of this study, old SAS data definition statements will be removed, leaving all files in only one part. The ASCII codebook has also been updated and converted to a PDF file.
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