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Sit-ins and Desegregation in the U.S. South in the Early 1960s (ICPSR 35630)

Principal Investigator(s): Andrews, Kenneth T., University of North Carolina; Biggs, Michael, University of Oxford

Summary:

This study examines the causes and consequences of sit-ins in the American South. It was motivated by four questions: (1) Why did sit-ins occur in some cities rather than others in the spring of 1960? (2) Did movement organizations grow faster where sit-ins occurred? (3) Why did desegregation occur in some cities but not others in 1960-1961? (4) Was desegregation more likely where sit-ins occurred? To answer these questions, data was collected on cities in the states of the former Confederacy plus Maryland, Kentucky, and West Virginia. All urban places with a population of at least 10,000 and a Black population of at least 1,000 are included. These provide the 334 observations. Variables include dates of sit-in protest and of the desegregation of lunch counters, social and economic characteristics from the 1960 Census, geographical location, Civil Rights organizations, newspaper circulation, and athletic affiliations of Black colleges.

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Study Description

Citation

Andrews, Kenneth T., and Michael Biggs. Sit-ins and Desegregation in the U.S. South in the Early 1960s. ICPSR35630-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-05-08. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35630.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35630.v1

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    African Americans, civil disobedience, civil rights, Confederate States of America, demonstrators, desegregation, peace movements, protest demonstrations, race, racial discrimination, racial integration, racial segregation, segregation, social inequality, social movements

Smallest Geographic Unit:    City

Geographic Coverage:    Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia

Time Period:   

  • 1960--1961

Unit of Observation:    Metropolitan Area

Universe:    Cities in the American South, defined as states of the former Confederacy plus Maryland, Kentucky, and West Virginia

Data Type(s):    administrative records data, census/enumeration data, event/transaction data

Methodology

Study Purpose:    This study examines the causes and consequences of sit-ins in the American South. It was motivated by four questions: (1) Why did sit-ins occur in some cities rather than others in the spring of 1960? (2) Did movement organizations grow faster where sit-ins occurred? (3) Why did desegregation occur in some cities but not others in 1960-1961? (4) Was desegregation more likely where sit-ins occurred?

Study Design:    Data was collected on cities in the states of the former Confederacy plus Maryland, Kentucky, and West Virginia. All urban places with a population of at least 10,000 and a Black population of at least 1,000 are included.

Sample:    All urban places with a total population of at least ten thousand and a nonwhite population of at least one thousand in 1960.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Description of Variables:    Variables include dates of sit-in protests and of the desegregation of lunch counters, social and economic characteristics from the 1960 Census, geographical location, Civil Rights organizations, newspaper circulation, and athletic affiliations of black colleges.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: No

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:   2015-05-08

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